Sains Malaysiana 44(11)(2015): 1573–1577


Synthesis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Derived Solid Acid Catalyst for Esterification of Waste Cooking Oils

(Sintesis Mangkin Asid Pepejal daripada Tandan Buah Kosong (EFB) Kelapa Sawit untuk Pengesteran Sisa Minyak Masak)




1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga National, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN

43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


2Centre of Renewable Energy, Universiti Tenaga National, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN

43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


3School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


Diserahkan: 28 Mac 2015/Diterima: 6 Julai 2015



Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) contributes to a large quantity of lignocellulosic waste. It is an abundantly available waste biomass in Malaysia. This project was aimed to utilize the waste materials for a better benefit. EFB were used as raw material to prepare a new solid catalyst for biodiesel production. Solid acid catalyst derived from EFB was used to catalyze the esterification process in biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Solid acid catalyst was prepared by direct impregnation with transition metal sulfides, Fe2(SO4)3. This new catalyst was used to catalyze the esterification of high free fatty acid (FFA) value oil, e.g. waste cooking oils (WCOs) as pre-treatment step prior to biodiesel production. The highest catalytic activity with 90.95% esterification rate was achieved. The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse compared to homogenous catalyst which are used in biodiesel production. EFB has the potential to be converted into useful feedstock and the derived catalyst can replace the traditional liquid acid catalyst in biodiesel production especially for high acid value content feedstock.


Keywords: Acid value; catalyst; esterification; oil palm empty fruit bunch; solid acid catalyst



Tandan kosong kelapa sawit (EFB) telah menyumbang sisa lignosellulosik dalam kuantiti yang banyak di Malaysia. Objektif penyelidikan ini adalah untuk mempergunakan bahan buangan tersebut untuk faedah yang lebih baik. EFB telah digunakan sebagai bahan mentah untuk menyediakan mangkin pepejal baru dalam penghasilan biodiesel. Mangkin asid pepejal yang diperoleh daripada EFB telah digunakan untuk memangkinkan proses pengesteran dalam penghasilan biodiesel daripada sisa minyak masak. Mangkin asid pepejal telah disediakan melalui impregnasi terus dengan sulfida logam peralihan Fe2(SO4)3. Mangkin baru ini telah digunakan untuk memangkinkan pengesteran minyak bebas asid lemak berkualiti tinggi seperti sisa minyak masak (WCO) sebagai langkah rawatan awal sebelum penghasilan biodiesel. Aktiviti mangkinan yang tinggi dengan 90.95% kadar pengesteran telah dicapai. Mangkin ini mudah dipisahkan untuk digunakan semula jika dibandingkan dengan mangkin homogen yang digunakan dalam penghasilan biodiesel. EFB berpotensi ditukar menjadi stok suapan dan mangkin yang diperoleh boleh menggantikan mangkin asid cecair tradisi dalam penghasilan biodiesel terutama untuk nilai asid tinggi kandungan stok suapan.


Kata kunci: Mangkin; mangkin asid pepejal; nilai asid; pengesteran; tandan kosong kelapa sawit



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