Sains Malaysiana 49(2)(2020): 249-259


Increased Obesity Rate due to Economic Transition and Industrialisation in Asia: A Systematic Review

(Peningkatan Kadar Keobesan disebabkan Peralihan Ekonomi dan Pengindustrian di Asia: Suatu Kajian Sistematik)




1School of Biosciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor's University, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


2Department of Culinology®, School of Culinary Arts and Food Studies, Taylor's University, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


Diserahkan: 23 Ogos 2019/Diterima: 29 Oktober 2019



Owing to economic transition and urbanisation, nutrition problems in Asia have shifted from malnutrition to over-nutrition. As a result, the obesity rate in Asia is rising at an alarming rate. This review aims to provide an overview of the key factors and current strategies of this phenomenon in Asia from the socio-economic point of view as well as to provide insights of possible ways to overcome these issues by analysing works of literature published between 2000 and 2018. Diet-related factors such as energy intake surplus, overconsumption of processed food, fat and sugar are among the largest contributors to this epidemic. The underlying factor of the surplus of energy intake was due to socioeconomic and cultural factors such as improved purchasing power and deep-rooted cultural associations of obesity with prosperity. Efforts have been put in by governments, NGOs, and the food industry to cope with obesity. These include the implementation of dietary guidelines, organisation of public health campaigns, enforcement of nutrition labelling on food products, application of fiscal policy, and marketing ban of energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) food products to children. However, these collective efforts have not been effective. Therefore, authorities should seek long term alternative ways such as food reformulation and 'food zoning' to create a conducive environment that encourages a healthy diet.


Keywords: Asia; economic transition; industrialisation; obesity; processed food consumption; socioeconomic factor



Keobesan di Asia telah meningkat pada kadar yang membimbangkan disebabkan oleh peralihan ekonomi dan urbanisasi. Kertas ini bertujuan untuk membincangkan punca keobesan daripada segi sosioekonomi dan juga memberi cadangan untuk langkah mengatasi masalah keobesan melalui kajian kepustakaan yang diterbitkan antara tahun 2000 dan 2018. Antara penyumbang terbesar kepada epidemik keobesan ini adalah berkaitan dengan sifat pemakanan seperti pengambilan kalori, makanan diproses, lemak dan gula yang berlebihan. Punca kejadian ini adalah disebabkan faktor sosioekonomi dan budaya seperti peningkatan kemampuan membeli secara umum dan pemikiran yang mengaitkan kekayaan dengan keobesan. Usaha untuk menyelesaikan masalah keobesan yang dijalankan oleh kerajaan, badan bukan kerajaan (NGO) dan industri pemakanan termasuklah menyediakan garis panduan makanan, kempen kesihatan awam, label nutrisi pada produk makanan, dasar kewangan serta larangan promosi makanan yang tidak berkhasiat kepada kanak-kanak. Walau bagaimanapun, usaha tersebut tidak menunjukkan kesan yang menggalakkan. Oleh itu, pihak berwajib seharusnya mencarialternatif jangka panjang lain seperti formulasi semula makanan dan 'pengezonan makanan' untuk mencipta persekitaran kondusif yang menggalakkan diet sihat.


Kata kunci: Asia; faktor sosioekonomi; keobesan; pengambilan makanan diproses; pengindustrian; peralihan ekonomi



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