Sains Malaysiana 49(2)(2020): 261-270


ACE-Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Hydrolysates from the By-Products of Hybrid Grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus × Epinephelus fuscoguttatus)

(Aktiviti Perencantan-ACE dan Antioksidan Hidrolisat daripada Hasil Sampingan Ikan Kerapu Kacukan (Epinephelus lanceolatus × Epinephelus fuscoguttatus))




1Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia


2Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia


3Borneo Marine Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia


Diserahkan: 21 Mac 2019/Diterima: 29 Oktober 2019



Protein hydrolysates, generated from the by-products of fish, have received much attention over recent years, due to their antihypertensive and antioxidant activities. The potency of bioactive peptides, however, is affected by the type of enzyme selected and the duration of hydrolysis required to generate the protein hydrolysate. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of using four different enzymes (Alcalase, Proteinase K, Trypsin, and Pepsin) and hydrolysis time (1 - 48 h), on the ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities (hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power), of protein hydrolysates from the head and bones of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus × Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). Among the enzymes tested, Alcalase was the most effective enzyme hydrolysing the by-product of hybrid grouper, followed by Proteinase K, Trypsin, and Pepsin (p < 0.05). According to the results attained, enzyme with the higher degree of hydrolysis exhibited higher antioxidant activities, but not ACE-inhibitory activity. This indicates that the ACE-inhibition potency of hydrolysate, from the by-product of hybrid grouper, is very much dependent on the type of enzyme, and the treatment duration during hydrolysis. The ACE-inhibitory activity of Alcalase and Trypsin hydrolysates was found to decrease in tandem with the increase in hydrolysis time. On the other hand, a longer hydrolysis time resulted in a higher ACE-inhibitory activity for Proteinase K and Pepsin hydrolysate (p < 0.05). The results attained suggest that the selection of an appropriate enzyme, together with an effective hydrolysis time, can enhance the bioactivities of the hydrolysate obtained from the by-product of hybrid grouper.


Keywords: ACE-inhibitory activity; Alcalase; Pepsin; Proteinase K; Trypsin



Kebelakangan ini, hidrolisat protein yang dihasilkan daripada bahan sampingan ikan telah mendapat banyak tumpuan disebabkan keupayaannya menunjukkan aktiviti antihipertensi dan antiosidan. Potensi bioaktif peptida bagaimanapun dipengaruhi oleh jenis enzim dan tempoh hidrolisis yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan hidrolisat protein. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji kesan enzim (Alkalase, Proteinase K, Tripsin, dan Pepsin) dan masa hidrolisis (1 - 48 jam) yang berbeza terhadap aktiviti perencatan-ACE dan antioksidan (aktiviti pemerangkapan radikal hidroksil dan kuasa penurunan) hidrolisat yang dihasilkan daripada kepala dan tulang ikan kerapu kacukan (Epinephelus lanceolatus × Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). Antara enzim yang digunakan, Alkalase merupakan enzim yang paling berkesan untuk menghidrolisiskan hasil sampingan ikan kerapu kacukan, diikuti dengan Proteinase K, Tripsin dan Pepsin (p < 0.05). Berdasarkan hasil kajian yang diperoleh, enzim dengan darjah hidrolisis yang tinggi merekodkan aktiviti antioksidan yang tinggi tetapi tidak dengan aktiviti perencatan-ACE. Ini menunjukkan potensi aktiviti perencatan-ACE hidrolisat daripada hasil sampingan ikan kerapu kacukan amat bergantung kepada jenis enzim dan masa rawatan sewaktu hidrolisis. Aktiviti perencantan-ACE bagi hidrolisat Alkalase dan Tripsin didapati menurun dengan peningkatan masa hidrolisis. Sebaliknya, masa hidrolisis yang panjang mengakibatkan aktiviti perencatan-ACE yang lebih tinggi bagi hidrolisat Proteinase K dan Pepsin (p < 0.05). Hasil keputusan kajian ini mencadangkan bahawa pemilihan enzim yang betul digabungkan dengan masa hidrolisis yang berkesan dapat menambahbaikan bioaktiviti hidrolisat yang diperoleh daripada hasil sampingan ikan kerapu kacukan.  


Kata kunci: Aktiviti perencantan-ACE; Alkalase; Pepsin; Proteinase K; Tripsin



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