Volume 13 (2001)
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
|1.||Pengesan Lalu Lintas dengan Kaedah Pemerosesan Imej (Traffic Detector with Image Processing Method)
Riza Atiq O.K.Rahmat, Kasmiran Jumari, Azmi Hassan & Hassan BasriAbstract
Most traffic detectors in service today work based on inductive loops buried under the road surface. Recently cameras and image processing with high-speed computers were beginning to be adopted for traffic surveillance system. This study was conducted to develop efficient traffic detector using image-processing with a personal compute I: Traffic images were captured using ordinary analogue video camera and digitised using a video blastel: Four algorithms were developed i. e. algorithm for traffic counting, algorithm for vehicle classification. algorithm to determine the speed of the counted vehicles and algorithm for incident detection. The four algorithms were found to be sufficiently efficient to be executed by a personal computer to capture multiple road lane traffic data simultaneously with high accuracy both during daytime and during, night.
|2.||Madelung Constants for Ionic Crystals Using the Ewald Sum
Ronald M. PrattAbstract
Ionic crystal configuration energies have always been one of the bugbears of computational thermodynamics due to the inherent long-range interactions. Unlike the van der Waals forcer associated with non-ionic compounds, it is not possible to utilize a long-range cutoff,’ ionic interactions require summation over an infinitely large crystal lattice. The situation is further complicated by the fact that the resulting infinite series for an ordered crystal lattice is non-convergent. This means that a direct summation over the charged particles is not feasible. This paper develops and analyzas a powerful yet under utilized method for calculating these lattice energies, the Ewald sum. Not only is this a powerful and accurate of calculating the configuration energies of ionic crystals, it is also not dependent on existence of crystal structure. Hence this method is useful in any application involving Coulonbic interactions, including substances in the liquid phase. The general Ewald method is presented with some simplifying assumptions to produce a working equation amenable to computer evaluations and sample computations are made for NaCI and CsCI. Extensive discussion is presented on determining the optimum splitting parameter: A simple yet general FORTRAN program for calculating the Madelung constant for an ionic system of any phase is presented and a sensitivity analysis is performed.
|3.||Kaedah Unsur Terhingga Menggunakan Kaedah Lelaran Kumpulan Tak Tersirat bagi Masalah Resapan Satu Matra (Finite Element Method Using Iterative Explicit Group Method for One Dimensional Diffusion Problem)
Jumat Sulaiman & Abdul Rahman AbdullahAbstract
Previous studies on the block iterative method focus mainly on the finite difference method. This paper presents the formulation and application of the 2, 3 and 4 point Explicit Group (EG) iterative methods scheme on the finite element approximation equation to solve the ine dimensionaldiffusion problems. Finally, one numerical test was implemented to show the computational efficiency of the EG iterative method on the finite element.
|4.||Proses Penyahnitratan dan Penyahwamaan di dalam Reaktor Lapisan Terkembang (Denitrification and Decolourisation Process in the Expended Bed Reactor)
Siti Kartom Kamarudin & Rakmi Abdul RahmanAbstract
Synthetic textile wastewater was biologically treated in aerobic and anaerobic expanded bed reactors. The objectives of this study are to investigated the reduction of COD (Chemical Oxygen demand), denitrification process, decolourisation process and other related parameters. Experimental work was done using perspec columns resctors which were innoculated with mixed culture. Granulated activated carbon was used as a support medium. Samples were analysed for their outlet and inlet COD, outlet and inlet nitrate, pH, temperature and biomass. It was observed that, a good removal of COD, nitrate and colour were obtained. The results shows that aerobic condition with dissolved oxygen less than 2.0 mg/L could reduce the accumulation of toxid on the biofilm surface and could ‘increase the efficiency of COD reduction as well as denitrification and decolourisation process for a longer period. The results also proved that simulatenous biodecolourisation and biodenitrification could a single reactor for both systems.
|5.||Pengembangan Reka Bentuk Konsep Menerusi Kaedah Penganalisaan Fungsi (Expansion of Conceptual Design Through Function Analysis Method)
The main objective of this study is to discuss in detail an expansion of a conceptual design phase in a function analysis method. This paper contains an interaction between function analysis for design methodologies and conceptual design for total design process. In this case, the selected solution of the function analysis is a black box model. Within the scape, the main function of an engineering design problem is expanded and separated into several sub-functions and it is being done in the black box boundary. The detail stages of the black box methodology are described in the paper. The overall function analysis can be used by most of the design engineers in order to produce some creative ideas for the conceptual design, in which the idea generation is only referred as the sub-functions. The final part of this study is a creation of the black box model in designing the supporting equipment of the human’s blood vessel using nickle-titanium alloy. As a medical term, this equipment is called an aortic stent.
|6.||Some Hydrodynamic Aspects of Gas-Liquid Fluidized Beds
Ahmad Tariq Jameel & Shaukat AliAbstract
Hydrodynamic characteristics of up-ward flow gas-liquid fluidized bed for air-waterglass bead system was investigated using a 19 cm dameter perspex column. The gas and liquid superficial velocities in the range of 0.0-1.1 cm/s sand 0.0-3.64 cm/s respectively, and glass beads of average diameters 2.50, 2.56 and 3.71 mm were studied. The effect of gas and liquid velocities and that of particle size on the quality of fluidization is related to various phase hold-ups in the bed. The gas holdup increased with increasing gas velocity and it decreased with the rise in liquid velocity whereas liquid holdup followed just the opposite trend. Howeve1; the bed porosity increased linearly with increase in gas and liquid velocities. These observations largely confirmed to the general trend reported in the literature. The particle size distribution was found to have significant influence on hydrodynamic parameters. The empirical correlations (from literature) for predicting bed porosity and liquid holdup were found to lie within 10 to 20 percent deviations from our experimental results. One such correlation was modified to closely fit our experimental data. The investigation validates the existing data for scale up to large .scale, as the bed diameter studied was closer to pilot scale than most of the works reported in the literature.
|7.||Structural Perturbations in Proton-Randomized Single Point Charge Simulated Ice
Ronald M. PrattAbstract
Molecular dynamics, along with Monte Carlo methods, continue to be powerful tools to probe molecular behavior: In this study, we used a simulation cell consisting of 896 water molecules in an ice-lh configuration to compare structural properties of protonrandomized simulated ice using the Single Point Charge (SPC) potential model. A subtle, significant crystal defect is found in proton-randomized ice which involves two of the three mutually perpendicular dipole angle distributions. This deformity does not influence macroscopic behavior of the substance, but it does indicate a departure in arrangement from the known structure of water: It is therefore recommended that an ordered ice structure first be set up, and then random perturbations made to achieve a proton disordered structure.
|8.||A Comprehensive Computational Design for Microstrip Passive and Active Linear Circuits
EI-Sayed A. EI-Badawy & Said H. IbrahimAbstract
This paper presents a user-oriented comprehensive computational program for designing linear active and passive microstrip circuits such as amplifiers, oscillators,mixers. lowpass filters and cuoplers. The substrate parameters and the characteristic impedance of the microstrip lines are given to the program as a common statement. Examples for the design of a 3 GHz high gain amplifier; 2.6-GHz oscillators, ring coupler operated at 3 GHz, and maximally-flat lowpass filter operated at 2 GHz with 0.75 GHz cutoff frequency are conducted. The introduced program is compared to other available ones.
|9.||The Use of Sn-Impregnated Activated Carbon for the Removal of CO in PSA System
S. E. Iyuke, A. B. Mohamad & W. R. W. DaudAbstract
Inevitable increase of carbon monoxide (CO) in the atmosphere as a result of its emission from process gases,has remained a threat to the world ecosystem. It is then expedient to develop technologies to either eliminate or at least reduce the concentration of co to a minimum bearable level in order to protect the world from its pollution. Consequently, Sn-Activated carbon adsorbent was developed and itsCOsorption and thermodynamic properties were studied and then applied in PSA system. Activated carbon was impregnated with 34.57% SnCH2.2H20 salt to improve its adsorptive interaction with CO. It was observed that the amount of CO adsorbed was almost equal to that desorbed which could imply that the adsorption of CO on the prepared adsorbents seems to be reversible. Further exploitation of the impregnated activated carbon in pressure swing adsorption (PSA) experiments showed that adsorption of carbon monoxide was higher with the impregnated carbon than in the pure.