Sains Malaysiana 32: 171-179 (2003)                                                                                           Sains Hayat /

Life Science


Performance of Red Palm Oil, Sunflower Oil

and Vegetable Ghee during Deep Fat Frying



Taufiq Ahmad, Shaheen Atta, Abdussattar, Anwar Ahmad

Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA)

Peshawar, Pakistan


Saeed Ahmad Nagra

 Institute of Chemistry

University of Punjab Lahore, Pakistan





Three types of fats, red palm oil (RPO), sunflower oil (SFO) and vegetable ghee (VC) were used for repeated deep fat frying of potato fillets (French fries) for 5 consecutive days @ 20 minutes per day at 190-200oC and then allowed to cool for 18 hours. This practice was repeated for 10 times. The test oils were evaluated for physical and chemical deterioration. The quality indices i.e. peroxide value (POV), free fatty acid (FFA), anisidine value (A V), iodine value (IV) and colour (OD at 420 nm) of the samples were measured. It was found that all the quality parameters significantly (p<0.05) increased as frying time was advanced, while a reverse trend regarding IV was observed in each test oil. However, colour was negatively correlated with PO V, FFA and A V but positively with IV in case of RPO.





Tiga jenis lemak, minyak sawit merah (RPO), minyak bunga matahari (SFO) dan minyak sapi dari sayuran digunakan untuk penggorengan menggunakan minyak banyak yang dilakukan berulangkali untuk kentang jejari goreng (French Fries) selama 5 hari berturut-turut @ 20 minit bagi setiap hari pada suhu 190-200oC dan dibiarkan menyejuk ke suhu bilik selama 18 jam. Minyak yang digunakan dinilai bagi kerosakan dari segi fizikal dan kimia. Kualiti sampel diukur melalui penunjuk seperti nilai peroksida (PO V), asid lemak bebas (FFA), nilai anisidin (AV), nilai iodin (IV) dan warna (OD pada 420 nm). Hasil mendapati kesemua parameter kualiti meningkat secara signifikan (p<0.05) dengan pertambahan masa penggorengan, manakala trend sebaliknya bagi nilai iodin (IV) didapati bagi setiap minyak ujian. Walau bagaimanapun, ciri warna berkorelasi secara negatif dengan POV, FFA dan AV tetapi secara postitif dengan IV dalam kes RPO.





Ahmad, I. 1999. Chemistry and technology of deep-frying oils. Pakistan Journal of Food Science 9: 29-24.

Ahmad, T., Atta, S. & Sattar, A. 1993. Stability of edible oils in relation to irradiation and anti oxidants. Proceeding 2nd All Pakistan Science Conference.

Ahmad, T., Sattar, A., Nagra, S. A. & Seikh, M. A. 1996. Effect of frying on chemical quality of edible oils. Pakistan. Journal of Pharmacy Punjab University 9(2) 51­-55.

Anon 1989. Nutritional value of fats in the diet with special reference to palm oil. In The Palm Oil Refiners Association of Malaysia (PORIM) Technical Brochure, pp 24-32.

Chang, S. S., Peterson, R. J. & Ho, C. T. 1978. Chemical reactions involved in the deep fat frying of Foods. Journal of the American Oil Chemists  Society 55: 718­-727.

Chu, Y. H. & Luo S. 1994. Effects of sugar, salt and water on soybean oil quality during deep frying. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 71: 897-900.

Haimmer, W.R. & Wijessonoer. 1996. Heat Stability of milk fat in relation to vegetable oil. Australian Journal of Dairy Technology 31: 2, 108-111.

Hudson, B. J.F. 1983. Evaluation of oxidative rancidity techniques. In Rancidity in Foods, ed by J.C.AlIen & RJ.Hamilton. London and New York :Applied Science Publishers.

Little, J.M. & Hills, F. 1. 1972. Statistical methods in analytical research. Agric. Extension, Davis. Univ. California: USA.

Mancini-Filho, J., Smith, L. M., Creveling R. K. & Al-Shaikh. H. F. 1986. Effects of selected chemical treatments on quality of fats used for deep-frying. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 63: 1453-1456.

McNeill, J., Yukio, K., & Basil, K. 1986. Improving the quality of used frying oils by treatment with activated carbon and silica Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 63: 1564-1567.

Okiy, D. A. & Oke, O. L. 1986. Some chemical changes in heated crude palm oil. Journal of Food Chemistry 21: 161-166.

PORIM. 1993. PORIM test methods. Kuala Lumpur: Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia.

Sebedio, J. L., Bonpunt, A., Grandgriard, A. & Prevost, J. 1990. Deep fat frying of frozen prefried french fries. Influence of the amount of linolinic acid in the frying medium. Journal of. Agricultural and Food Chemistry 38: 869-1872.

Sebedio, J. L., Kaitarantaj, Grandgriard, A., & Maikkiy, Y. 1991. Quality assessment of industrial pre-fried french fries. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 68: 299-302.

Steven, L.H., Myers, M.R. & Artz,W.E. 1994.Non volatile components produced in triolein during deep fat frying. Journal of the American oil Chemists' Society 71:1239-1243.

Stevenson, S. G., Vaisey-Jenser M & Eskin, N.A.M., 1984a. Quality control in the use of deep frying oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists'  Society 61: 1102­-1108.

Stevenson, S. G., Jeffery, L & Vaisey-Jenser, M. 1984b. Performance of canola and soybean fats in extended frying. Journal of Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology 18: 187-189.

Mahungu, S. M., Hansen, S.L. & Artz, W.E. 1994. Quality of volatile compound in heated triolein by static headspace capillary gas chromatography/infrared spectroscopy-mass spectroscopy. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 71: 453-455.

Werman, M. J. & Neeman, I. 1986. Effectiveness of anti-oxidants in refined, bleached avocado oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 63: 352-­354.