Chief Guest Editor

Sr. Dr. Suhana Johar
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Guest Editors

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Wardah Fatimah Mohammad Yusoff
Dr. Noor Aisyah Mokhtar
Dr. Nur Amirah Abd Samad
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim
Dr. Muhammad Farihan Irfan Mohd Nor
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

The theme for this special issue of Engineering Journal is the research in built environment. Original articles, original case studies and review articles are welcomed, on subjects such as green and sustainable built environment, project management, housing, culture and heritage in built environment, urban studies, facilities management, and social issues in built environment.

Table of Contents

Front Page

No. Article Page  
1. Review on Guideline Pertaining to Flood Resistance Design for Residential Architecture in Malaysia and UK

Sharika Tasnim*, Nayeem Asif & Srazali Bin Aripin


Flooding is a crucial issue for structures all around the globe. The classification and evaluation of damage methods and the design of strategies to optimize flood resilience are thus critical components of flood risk management. The paper presents an in-depth analysis of the guideline for flood resistance design for residential architecture in Malaysia and the UK. Both Malaysia and the UK are at risk of flooding because of rainfall and rising sea levels surrounding their coastal cities due to climate change. Qualitative research methodology is adopted for this research by analysing the contents of guidelines of Malaysia and the UK. Therefore, it has implemented content analysis from secondary sources, including documents, briefing papers, studies, and print and online sources of building and planning guidelines. The output from this paper is that there are measures of flood resistance design in Malaysia. Measures include design strategies such as using floodproof materials, avoiding floodplain zones for residential properties, etc. However, those measures are insufficient and need to be more comprehensive on flood-resistant residential buildings in Malaysia. The output from this paper also compares the guidelines on flood resistance design for residential architecture and the different approaches incorporated between Malaysia and the UK. It needs further exploration of why there is an inadequate effort to develop guidelines for residential architecture despite considerable residential property damages occurring yearly due to flooding in Malaysia.

Keywords : Flooding; flood risk management; flood resistance design; guideline; residential architecture
2. An Exploratory Analysis of the Definition and Conceptualization of Cultural Landscape

Amanda Rosetia* & Nor Zalina Harun Abstract

Many have analyzed “cultural landscape” and its meaning. Some recall the basics of diverse fields, such as “a cultural landscape is a landscape that has been cultivated” or “culture that dwells in a landscape.” The need to decipher “cultural landscape” has drive n research on people’s cultural views of their immediate surroundings. This study suggests cultural landscape research in South East Asia against the backdrop of emerging approaches in cultural landscape research worldwide. Thus, this essay will examine cultural dynamics arguments and hypotheses. This exploratory review and inductive qualitative analysis examined “cultural landscape” studies from the early 19th century to the present. Google Scholar, Science Direct, and other professional education search portals were used to find and examine over fifty papers on local cultural landscapes. To understand cultural landscape studies’ interconnectedness, research results are synthesized and thematized. Therefore, the study provides a concise overview of eight (8) significant fields of study: geography, governance, environmental studies, etymology, tourism, agricultural studies, health studies and technology. Only tourism, ecology, geography, and politics study Indonesia’s cultural landscape. However, despite the abundance of creative and literary creation in Indonesia, little progress has been made in this area. Instead, new findings in domains as diverse as literature, semantics, and etymology are advancing our knowledge of the cultural environment and its effects.

Keywords: Cultural landscape; exploratory; research trend; inter discipline; Indonesia
3. Theories of the Architectural Symbolism of the Traditional Mosque: A Preliminary Classification

Hazwan Ariff Hakimi, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim* & Nor Zalina Harun


The productive scholarship on the architectural symbolism of the traditional mosque expounded by the Traditionalist School at the end of the second millennium, which continued well into the third millennium by scholars exhibiting a strong Traditionalist influence or otherwise, is a testament to the subject’s importance to the development of Islāmic architecture. Despite its prolificity and agency, most studies on the subject remain theoretically arbitrary, if not deficient, rudimentary at best, and disjointed. To fill this theoretical gap, this article, for the first time, identifies, outlines and synthesises the many disparate theories of the architectural symbolism of the traditional mosque to establish a preliminary classification. It employs a hermeneutic reading of 32 significant theoretical and empirical studies on the architectural symbolism of the traditional mosque sourced from books, journals, conference proceedings, and periodicals available to the authors. By capitalising on the textual and comparative analyses, it is found that as many as 28 distinct theories of the architectural symbolism of the traditional mosque with their attendant symbolic dimensions and parameters were posited in all 32 studies, all of which can be consolidated into three broad theoretical frameworks. These findings present an original systematisation of theories of the architectural symbolism of the traditional mosque, which is instrumental in two ways: it encourages scholars to develop existing theories or establish new ones, and it assists Muslims in recognising and acknowledging the spiritual agency of their built forms while offering foreign readers another expansive and inspiring lens to view them.

Keywords: Architectural theory; architectural symbolism; mosque architecture
4. Malaysian SME’s Contractors Adoption of Building Information Modeling (BIM)

Mohd Zul Aswad Zulkifli, Noor Akmal Adillah Ismail, Noorsaidi Mahat*, Mohd Dzuliqyan Jasni, Sheikh Ali Azzran Sh Said & Mohd Iskandar Abd Malek Abstract

Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a modelling technology that provides construction professionals with digital tools for use in project planning, design, monitoring, and control. The potential advantages of putting BIM into practice are known to the Malaysian government. The Malaysian government has taken a number of steps to promote BIM in the hopes that Malaysian construction industry experts will utilize it extensively. However, significant difficulties are delaying the introduction of BIM in Malaysia. Implementing BIM typically presents difficulties for smaller businesses. Even though there are numerous benefits to utilizing BIM, small and medium-sized construction companies are still cautious to do so in the course of their work. This study examines BIM adoption in Malaysian small and medium-sized construction firms. The present degree of BIM adoption in Malaysia’s construction industry as well as the best tactics to encourage SME contractors in Malaysia’s construction industry to embrace BIM more effectively were the subjects of a questionnaire survey that was conducted. According to the survey’s results, SME contractors are still trailing behind in adopting BIM due to a number of obstacles that stand in the way of its adoption. In order to increase BIM adoption among SME contractors, it is crucial that government agencies successfully promote and encourage BIM use across the whole Malaysian construction sector. The importance of this study is in gathering data on the extent of BIM adoption among SME contractors, which might be utilized as a benchmark and reference for the development of BIM in the Malaysian construction industry.

Keywords: BIM; Building Information Modelling; adoption; way forward
5. A Review: Eco-Friendly Technologies and Sustainable Development of Urban Friendliness Spaces Toward New Urbanism Design Approach

Omar Abdulwahhab Khalaf*, Nor Haslina Ja`afar, Mohd Iskandar Abdul Malek & Elina Mohd Husini


Ecologically conscious technology is a fast-developing domain centring around novel scientific and technical approaches that bring advantages to the planet. Commonly known as “sustainable technology”, this field is committed to conserving our natural resources. Therefore, urban Friendliness spaces are essential to all users as it stands as a public space which provides a sustainable environment for a more walkable, safe, and green environment.‎The problem statement of this study is imperative to enhance the sustainability and eco-friendliness of urban Friendliness spaces. Thus, this paper aims to incorporate both the development of new technologies and the improvement of existing ones to physically and functionally enhance the Friendliness spaces. The methodology involved a systematic literature review of new urbanism design approaches, which was achieved through a structured review of existing literature. Our results indicate that many key design elements, inventions, improvements, and scientific developments can have an impact on the ecosystem of urban spaces, subsequently affecting the people on an individual level. The findings of this study hope to contribute to the body of knowledge on how to improve urban development toward producing an eco-friendly and sustainable built environment.

Keywords: Eco-friendly technology; green technology; sustainable; new urbanism; friendliness
6. Living with Water: Spatial Mechanisms of Coastal Communities

Arnis Rochma Harani* , Resza Riskiyanto, Bangun I.R. Harsritanto & Muhammad I. Hasan


This paper introduces spatial characteristics of the built environment systems in coastal communities. People in Morosari, Demak, Central Java one of the societies that always have to deal with water as part of their everyday life. The way how peoples respond to sea tidewater in any situation gave new insight into sustainable urban design strategy. This study aims to explore various spatial mechanisms operated by the people to reveal how the system works together. We proposed that the exploration of various mechanisms done by people when living with water may bring the possibility to expand the discourse of spatial systems on water resiliency. This study used a qualitative method in collecting data through observation, interviews, and video recording. The analysis is carried out by exploring the everyday life of the community that considers water as part of the living system. This study found three spatial mechanisms in the coastal environment system held by people when dealing with the water: (1) everyday spaces separation based on reading nature, (2) plug-and-play operation carried out both in their domestic area and neighborhood, and (3) leveling control by the material system. The finding of this study also presents another form of water resiliency that is constructed by the spatial system in the coastal environment.

Keywords: Spatial mechanism; coastal community; living with water; resilience; everyday life
7. Body’s Movement as Drawing: Notation and Annotation in The Construction of Space at Alun-Alun Solo

Defry Agatha Ardianta, Yandi Andri Yatmo* & Paramita Atmodiwirjo


This paper will discuss the study of space quality by reading the body’s movement as drawing. The understanding of notation on drawing thinking is used to read the spatial function arrangement in alun-alun, a public open space found in many cities in Indonesia, where there are no solid spatial boundaries. Alun-alun is a public space related to sociocultural aspects and has a complex layer of events. A certain reading method is needed to reveal the quality of the space, and not only read one layer of conditions. The understanding of notation is used because notational characters beyond visual have time variables and social contexts, opening up the possibility of shared interpretations. The study was conducted at Alun-alun Solo, Central Java, by placing the activity and movement of visitors as an essential element that is present along with the arrangement of spatial functions determined by street vendors and playgrounds. This study was conducted using mapping the notational structure of spaces and tracing the movement of visitors over the spatial arrangement. The findings in this study are the presence of multiple annotations that overlap the defined space. The annotation in the drawing thinking process shows that conditions are considered unfinished, still in progress, and there are simultaneous thought processes in action. The existence of annotations from the visitor’s body movement reveals the significance of forming a different quality of space, which is constructed from everyday phenomena and does not depend on the arrangement of the notation that has been determined.

Keywords: Spatial quality; body’s movement; notation; annotation
8. Pengaruh Reka Bentuk Bangunan terhadap Sistem Pengudaraan Pusat Membeli Belah di Malaysia
The Influence of Building Design on the Ventilation System of Shopping Malls in Malaysia

Nur’Aina Farhana Norzelan*, Wardah Fatimah Mohammad Yusoff* & Muhammad Ihsan Shaharil


The COVID-19 pandemic that hits the world since 2019, has become an eye-opener regarding the importance of having good ventilation system in buildings. An enclosed space which has a poor ventilation system causes the spread of COVID-19 virus more widely. Shopping malls are among the buildings that are often visited by the public. Therefore, this study is conducted out of awareness of the need to use an effective ventilation system in shopping mall, especially since the COVID-19 pandemic occurs. This study is a preliminary study. The objective of this study is to identify the influence of building design on the ventilation system used in shopping malls in Malaysia, from the past to the present. The research method used is qualitative descriptive evaluation through the observation and case studies. A total of four shopping malls around the Klang Valley, Malaysia, which are built in four different phases, have been selected for this preliminary study. The results show that shopping malls built before the year 2000, have enclosed type design, and the ventilation system used depends merely on a mechanical system which is air-conditioning system. Meanwhile, after the year 2000, the design of shopping mall has evolved to a combination of enclosed and open design. This design has affected the ventilation system used, which is a hybid system that combines the mechanical and natural ventilation. The results of this study are important in providing information about the approach to the ventilation system of shopping malls in Malaysia, from the past to the present. The results of this study are able to encourage various further studies regarding the ventilation systems in shopping malls.

Keywords : COVID-19; ventilation system; shopping malls
9. A Study on Daylight Conditions of Dementia Care Facilities in Malaysia

Siti Munirah Zazarin, Zalena Abdul Aziz* & Christopher Heng Yii Sern


Thoughtful design can provide a therapeutic solution for people with dementia in both assisted and independent living facilities. Considerations that create a dementia-inclusive environment include layout design, incorporation of sensory cues, signage system, levels of visibility, and lighting systems. As those with dementia are prone to wandering, design which facilitates wayfinding is crucial in their daily lives. Hence, visibility and lighting are essential to support wayfinding and promote independence amongst those with dementia besides reducing the risk of falls. Indoor daylight settings and adequate levels of illumination are vital as they compensate for the cognitive deterioration that people with dementia experience. Therefore, this paper aims to study the existing conditions of daylight in dementia care facilities. The outcome of this paper summarizes the current state of daylighting implementation in the Malaysian context through first-hand experiments at three different dementia centres, located in different parts of Malaysia. At each centre, daylight levels are recorded hourly throughout daylit hours within a period of one day. The data recorded is cross-referenced with daylight requirements outlined in Malaysian Standards 1525:2019. The findings of this paper suggest that on the whole, communal spaces, namely dining areas and activity spaces receive sufficient or excessive daylight, while private spaces, such as the bedroom receives either adequate or insufficient daylight levels.

Keywords: Daylighting; illumination levels; dementia-inclusive; daylight factor; elderly care facility
10. Thinking Low-Tech: Promoting Local Practices in Design Studio

Kristanti Dewi Paramita* & Yandi Andri Yatmo


This article interrogates low-tech material and construction as the basis of pedagogical strategies in the architectural design studio, enabling the development of innovative spatial interventions which foster dialogues between humans and their environment. The high-tech, contemporary architectural design movement generates limitless possibilities of architecture driven by technological advancement. Nevertheless, it is argued that the notion of low-tech enables the rediscovery of architecture that is rooted in its context, driven by the humancentred integration between natural resources and local material practices. Focusing on low-tech also provides the opportunity to develop meaningful innovation within the scope of the rural environment, a context often omitted within the urban-laden academic discourse. This article outlines lessons learned from the exploration of low-tech in a third-year architectural design studio at Universitas Indonesia. The studio begins by creating the collective compilation of vernacular knowledge in the techniques of gathering, treating, and crafting the material in their respective context. The design process follows by exploring the low-tech assembly of these materials in context, defining the needed passive manoeuvres to generate the appropriate spatial qualities. In conclusion, the compilation of material expands knowledge on materiality within a tropical context, where the material is found and transformed through connection with nature, appropriation of time, and intersection with communities’ lifecycles. The low-tech assembly exploration expands ways of conscious reading towards the environment, both globally and from a more localised perspective. Such conscious reading enables students to programmatically develop the position and configuration of their project as a whole, thus enriching the pedagogical strategies of passive architectural design.

Keywords: Low-tech; local practice; architectural studio; material; nature
11. Foreground-Background: Investigating Trajectory of Smell in Navigating Architectural Space

Ruth Kartika Purnasasmita & Yandi Andri Yatmo


This study investigates the trajectory of smell in space as the basis of architectural design methods development. It began with the discussion that architecture often removes or overwrites the presence of smell based on its stimulating existence created from matter. In this study, the experience of smell is considered in the form of trajectory. This study highlights that—instead of understanding smell as one fixed occurrence in space— understanding smell through the idea of trajectories enables dynamic navigation of boundaries and movement in space. This investigation of the trajectory of smell could reveal layers of smell in space. These layers can be seen in the form of foreground-background compositions. This study investigates smell by conducting the process of smellwalking in the context of Mayestik, a local public market in South Jakarta to reveal such trajectories. In this study, the trajectories of smell are constructed by the smell’s movement (the distribution of smell in space), human movement, and the existing layers within the space. The layers and trajectories of smell play a role as olfactory cues in navigating space, highlighting the dynamics and fragmentary characters of smell that are then translated into various acts of bodily responses. These findings suggest possible architectural programming operations based on the layers and trajectories of smell, considering the transactional relations between smell, the surrounding environment, and human movement.

Keywords: Smell; foreground-background; trajectory; movement; navigation
12. Conceptual Framework of Biophilic Design Elements (BDE) for Indoor Work Settings

Nabilah Huda Zulkifli, Abdul Razak Sapian, & Putri Haryati Ibrahim*


The human tendency to connect with nature existed long ago. Nature and humans coexist since the beginning of time indicating that constant engagement with nature is highly needed. However, due to globalization and rapid development changes has severed this relationship between human and nature. The Industrial Revolution during the 1600s created a huge gap and disconnection between human and nature, which resulted in the depletion of mental and physical wellbeing as people spend long working hours indoors. The need to stay indoors to work has led to depression and mental health degradation resulting in low performance as employees disengage from their association with nature. The importance of biophilic design elements in reducing depression and mental health degradation prevailed through evidence of research abundance. However, there are still not many studies on the framework tailored to the trend of implementing nature into the indoor working environment. This paper aims to identify, compare and characterize qualitative data from various literature source on the biophilic design elements (BDE), focusing on the indoor working environment. This study will develop a conceptual framework to determine the criteria for the most prominent biophilia elements that can be implemented in indoor settings to efficiently guide professionals in the built environment in preparing the ideal work settings. The parameters frommyriad studies encompass a variety of elements that are identified and classified by prominent researchers to reduce the impact of the inability to become in constant contact with nature. To improve productivity and reduce the stress level of the employees working indoors, the application of BDE contributes to the mood, performance and well-being of the employees, thus sustaining organization in the long run.

Keywords: Biophilic; biophilic design elements; indoor work setting
13. Community Transformation through Community Infrastructure Planning: A Case Study of Song District, Sarawak

Mark Anak Edward Tuah, Peter Aning Tedong* & Melasutra Md. Dali


The development of community infrastructure is fundamental to the socio-economic growth of a region and its community. Nevertheless, the development of rural community infrastructure still remains a challenge in some rural areas which affects the standard of living in the communities. In Malaysia, community infrastructure planning remains a key component of Malaysia’s rural development policies and strategies that needs to be amplified in ensuring the sustainable development of rural areas. This paper examines the role of community infrastructure planning in transforming rural communities’ quality of life which includes the impacts of community infrastructure planning to community’s livelihood transformation and challenges that comes with it. This study adopts the qualitative approach involving semi-structured in-depth interviews with relevant government agencies involved in the rural community infrastructure planning process. Based on a study carried out in Song District, Sarawak, the findings finds that while the respondents agreed that development of community infrastructure in the district have created transformational effects to the communities’ livelihoods, there were various challenges to the delivery of community infrastructure projects to certain areas within the district in addition to satisfying the needs to the community. The discussion suggests that in terms of governance, integration of institutional roles of stakeholders, involving government agencies and community needs to be emphasize in the rural community infrastructure planning process to deal with the many challenges in order to fulfill the rural communities’ needs

Keywords: Community infrastructure planning; rural community; community transformation
14. Concept Study of Micro-Architectural Elements of Street Businesses in Pulau Tuba

A Wafiy Haniff Kamal, Azimin Samsul M Tazilan*, Kamarul A Kosman, Sharmiza Abu Hassan & Sharina Abdul Halim


The purpose of this paper is to identify the elements of street business microarchitecture (MCR) in rural areas, namely Tuba Island, Langkawi, and its significance in the local economy. The impact of Covid-19 leads to a trend of Malaysian youth who had previously migrated to the city are returning to the countryside. Hence, it encourages a better understanding of urban sustainability through classification, design, and intervention in rural areas of Malaysia using case studies from Tuba Island, Langkawi. This study uses a qualitative research approach and literature review, by recording the presence of active structure of MCR of the street businesses and the scenarios that occur in the specific area and identifies the type of microarchitecture classification based on previous studies. Interviews and observation approaches were implemented to obtain comprehensible information to gather data, which were then used in the analysis. This study finds that MCR units that are available at Pulau Tuba are mainly permanent and semi-permanent status and can be found on main roads and places of commercial activities with many visitors. MCR typoscape T8 are mostly restaurants and grocery stores, while T3, T4 and T5 are suitable for small island use as they are remote, easy to set up and ad-hoc but fixed setting.

Keywords: Micro architecture; street business; rural area
15. A National Identity Framework Development: Adaptation of Indigenous Culture in Modern Contemporary Architecture

Sarah Mohd Hilmee*, Kamarul Afizi Kosman


The failure of developing an architectural national identity has been highlighted by most scholars and architectural experts in Malaysia. Most architecture produced since Malaysia’s independence are influenced by imported architectural styles. Majority of the country’s architecture do not reflect the identity of its people, nor does it reflect the climate in which it is built in. Furthermore, effects of globalisation and the universalisation of architecture itself creates a plethora of issues that contribute to the lack of diversity in design, unresponsiveness to environmental concerns as well as the needs of the user. Lack of cultural heritage and national identity in architecture can be attributed to the lack of guideline or framework that allows for architects to use as a reference in designing architecture with national identity. Therefore, this study’s objective is to provide a theoretical rationale for the development of an architectural national identity framework, to identify methods of adaptation of culture and cultural elements into modern contemporary architecture and lastly to identify key factors and common values that contribute to successful architecture. This study identified 5 architecture projects that reflect an adaptation of culture in modern contemporary architecture. The study revealed that there are tangible and intangible elements that contribute to design adaptation of culture in modern contemporary architecture. The role of architecture as a bridging point can both protect, preserve, and revitalise cultural heritage as well as link the tangible and intangible elements with modern contemporary architecture. The study also suggests future opportunities for research on this topic.

Keywords: Architecture framework; cultural adaptation; national identity; globalisation; critical regionalism
16. Kajian Kelebihan Menggunakan Ilustrasi sebagai Bahasa Visual dalam Memahami UKBS 1984
A Review of the Advantage in Using Illustration as Visual Language In Understanding UBBL 1984

Ahmad Firkry Khairy Ahmad Mustafa*, Suhana Johar & Mohd. Khairul Azhar Mat Sulaiman


The use of the Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 (UBBL) is no stranger among architectural practitioners and to the Local Authorities (PBT) in general, in which the UBBL also has several different versions according to PBT in each state. UBBL is a ‘must book’ in every local municipal office and in the architectural firms including to the architectural students in Malaysia. This showed how important the UBBL, however, there is a difficulty in understanding the content stated among the students and practitioners of the industry. Among the factors that make it difficult to understand is due to the use of legal language in which the UBBL is a law that has been subsidized under Act 133 on 05 June 1974. In addition, the absence of a simple and concise explanation for each clause in the UBBL and the absence of illustrations or diagrams that could explaining a clause. The use of illustrations as a visual language can help to ease understanding for students and the architecture industry of the meanings, principles, procedures and anything relates to subject matters. This paper is to discuss the meaning of visual or illustrative language, its history, the importance, and the impact of its usage in other fields. The methodology is through the analysis of relevant secondary sources. The findings showed the type of illustration that is fits to be used is the industry and technical illustration as they can explain the meaning of a clause in UBBL by using simple elements such as lines, geometries, scales and the stated measurements. All these features are common in the field of architecture, thus facilitating the process of understanding UBBL within a short time among the architectural students and practitioners.

Keywords: Architecture; UBBL 1984; illustration; visual language, diagram
17. Case Study: Inter-floor Leakage in High-Rise Residential Buildings in Malaysia

Siti Rosemawar Mohd Sahi, Norngainy Mohd Tawil*, Nurfidatul Ema Saaidin, & Kuan You Wai


Building defects are a common issue in the construction industry. Defects of high-rise buildings, such as cracks and leaks, are often caused by poor workmanship, and insufficient and low-quality building materials. Other contributing factors to building defects are inadequate cooperation during construction, poor design and improper installation. Inter-floor leakage is a widespread matter in new homes, leaks are detected late and repeated leaks occur even after repairs have been carried out. Inter-floor leakage often occurs in new homes. Leaks are detected late and repeated ones occur even after repairs are carried out. This study aims to diagnose buildings with inter-floor leakage problems by using several diagnostic tools and techniques like visual, destructive and non-destructive tests. Experts use testing equipment to determine moisture and appropriate maintenance or repair. A case study is carried out on a residential unit with a leak in the ceiling due to a crack on the rooftop. The findings of the study can provide knowledge about building diagnosis to property owners and property managers, identifying the cause of leaks and enabling early detection of building defects and suggested repairs to prevent similar leaks from occurring. By utilizing diagnostic tools and techniques, owners and property managers can detect problems early, minimizing damage and expenses in the long run. Based on the study, existing cracks can be converted into expansion joints, white paint can be used on the walls to control heat, installed thermal insulation to control solar energy stress and waterproof membrane can be applied to prevent moisture penetration.

Keywords: Inter-floor leakage; building defect; cracks; moisture; diagnosis
18. Potentials and Challenges of Bio-Composites Materials as Engineering Structures in Ecological Slope Protection: A Review

Sun Mingyu, Mohd Khairul Azhar Mat Sulaiman & Wardah Fatimah Mohammad Yusoff


Ecological slope protection technology has gained popularity as a sustainable and eco-friendly approach for slope restoration and conservation. The integration of ecological considerations into slope protection techniques has resulted in more sustainable and environmentally friendly solutions. In order to advance the development of ecological self-cycling, this study conducts a comprehensive review of the latest advancements in ecological slope protection technology materials. A systematic literature search was conducted using four databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar) and based on the keywords: ecological slope protection; slope protection; bio-composite material; bio-material; eco-material; eco-friendly building material; mycelium based material; natural fiber composite and biochar. This article provides a detailed discussion of the fundamental types of ecological slope conservation and the properties of materials used in ecological slope protection technology. The usage of environmentally friendly innovative materials has overtaken traditional engineered structures as the primary mode of ecological slope protection innovation. In particular, this study focuses on the structural basis of ecological slope protection, conducting a comparative analysis of the properties of existing bio-composites and evaluating whether they could replace the base structure of ecological slope protection. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of more sustainable and effective ecological slope protection techniques, thereby promoting ecological conservation and restoration.

Keywords: Ecological slope protection; bio-composite material; mycelium based material
19. Comparative Analysis of Residential Energy Consumption in Selected Areas of Cantilan Surigao del Sur

Odinah C. Enteria* & Jose P. Calipayan, Jr


Energy consumption is considered as one of the most crucial issues in our daily lives, yet, the fundamental understanding of how energy assessment and policies are designed remained as one of the biggest barriers because of the complexity. The study is focused on analyzing the residential energy consumption in selected barangays in the municipality of Cantilan, Surigao del Sur, Mindanao Philippines. The study provides well-documented data as basis for establishing policy for potential energy usage reductions and cost savings of the municipality. The study investigates the profile of the respondents, profile of household based on construction type; and residents’ contributory factors and practices on energy consumption. The descriptive research design was employed through survey and informal interviews from the two most populated barangays in the municipality of Cantilan. A validated researcher-made questionnaire served as the main tool in the data gathering. Based on the findings, the contributory factors on energy consumption and the conservation practices of the respondent barangays mirrored their socio-economic status. Most respondents fall into low-income households, where only those essential appliances useful in their day-to-day activities are the priorities and things they afforded. Although most households only have a few appliances, the average monthly electric expense has increased due to high energy costs and frequent energy interruptions. The respondents’ conservational habits are reflected in their energy consumption. It can be deduced that understanding the consumers’ motivations of energy usage in a specific situation, will eventually lead to gaining insights of good energy consumption process in the area.

Keywords: Energy consumption; practices; rural areas; energy costs
20. Keberkesanan Taman Poket dalam Meningkatkan Kualiti Hidup Penduduk Bandar di Kawasan Perumahan Bertingkat Kos Rendah di Malaysia
The Effectiveness of Pocket Park in Improving the Urban Resident’s Quality of Life at Low-Cost High-Rise Housing Area in Malaysia

Muhammad Anas Ahmad Nazari*, Noraziah Mohammad


Issues and problems regarding the allocation of open space in high-rise residential buildings that have been determined by the Local Authority (PBT) do not match the population is a problem that has been going on for a long time and has been debated but has not yet been fully addressed even though various strategic measures have been identified and taken to reduce the problem this. Rapidly developing cities have long struggled with the issue of green space requirements. Adding green areas such as pocket parks is one of the actions that can be taken to reduce the effects of rapid urbanization. Research on the effectiveness of pocket parks in improving the quality of life of urban residents in Malaysia has been studied in this study. The main aim of this study is to identify the allocation of pocket park design guidelines by Local Authorities (PBT) for high-rise houses/low-rise apartments in Malaysia and to identify the effectiveness of pocket parks in improving the quality of life of low-cost housing residents in Selangor. To achieve the objective, a questionnaire survey was conducted involving 108 respondents who stayed in three low-cost multi-storey housing. This questionnaire survey discusses the issue of pocket parks in Selangor as well as the role of pocket parks in improving the quality of life of residents. Findings from the analysis of the questionnaire are divided into three parts, which are the demographics of the respondents, the understanding of the pocket park, and the suggestions and improvements of the respondents regarding the effectiveness of the pocket park in improving the quality of life of the people in Selangor. The results of this study show that there are several factors that contribute to the effectiveness of pocket gardens in high-rise residential buildings. The majority of the respondents agreed that the pocket park facilities provided as a whole improve the quality of life of the residents.

Keywords: Pocket park; low-cost high-rise housing; quality of life; effectiveness of the garden
21. Analisis Kerangka Kos Penggunaan Ruang Universiti Awam di Malaysia
Analysis of Cost Framework Space Usage of Public University in Malaysia

Nurfidatul Ema Saaidin, Norngainy Mohd Tawil, Abdul Mutalib Aman Shah, Siti Rosmawar Mohd Sahi & Azalillah Ramdani Musa


Teaching and Learning space is the property and need to be managed by university itself. Poor physical resource management in university will affect the university financial sustainability. Hence the importance of optimal space usage for the public and its impacts on finance should be focused in order to help the government in reducing financial spending burden. Efficient management of teaching and learning spaces in public universities is economically beneficial as it leads to cost savings. High costs are required for construction of new building, maintenance and providing an additional space then it is responsibility of the university management to develop strategies to identify the components cost involved in the used of space. The objective of this study is to analyze the cost components that need to be considered for each space and develop a cost framework for the use of teaching and learning space. The conceptual framework developed consists of 10 main constructs and each construct contains an item fraction of 36 items. The questionnaire method was selected and involved a total of 52 respondents consisting of the maintenance department focusing on university space management. Reliability of each construct and item is 0.956, this shows that the instrument cost of space utilization of public university in Malaysia is very good and can be used. The ranking list of public universities in Malaysia adjusts the rank based on the prioritized cost of space utilization, including cleaning costs, mechanical and electrical costs, utility costs, public costs, finance costs, consumption costs, basic maintenance/repair costs, construction costs, security costs, and administrative/operational costs.

Keywords: Space management; costing; university; learning space
22. Examining the Symbolism of the Ascension (Mi‘rāj): Relationships Between Traditional Malay Prose Narratives (Ḥikāyāt) and Traditional Malay Mosques in Melaka

Hazwan Ariff Hakimi, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim* & Nor Zalina Harun


The saying that the Islāmic ritual prayer (ṣalāh) epitomises the ascension (mi‘rāj) of the believer has prompted some scholars to interpret the Prophet Muḥammad’s Ascension (Mi‘rāj) in the traditional mosque’s symbolism in the Islāmic world, including those in Melaka. Despite being original in the Traditionalist sense of the word, their allusions to the symbolism remain methodologically deficient and conceptually limited. Given these circumstances, this article examines the symbolism of the Mi‘rāj in the traditional Malay mosques in Melaka through the traditional Malay prose narratives (ḥikāyāt) which manifest the symbolism of the same. It employs a hermeneutic reading of MSS 2968 Risālat Laṭīfat fī Bayān al-Isrā’ wa-al-Mi‘rāj (1767), the earliest known manuscript narrating the story of Prophet Muḥammad’s Mi‘rāj in the Malay world as well as case studies of three significant and contemporaneous Malay mosques in Melaka, namely Masjid Tengkera (1728), Masjid Kampung Hulu (1728), and Masjid Kampung Kling (1748). By capitalising on the combination of textual, document, and comparative analyses, it was found that there is a correlation between the text and the buildings, in which the symbolism of the Mi‘rāj is manifested in several external and internal architectural elements of all three mosques. These findings present the unity of the traditional Malay-Islāmic heritage generally and the productive relationship between literature and architecture particularly through a provisional methodological and conceptual framework which endeavours to establish the basis for future research on the subject.

Keywords: Architectural symbolism; ascension; prose narrative; mosque architecture; Melaka
23. Assessing Indoor Air Quality and Sick Building Syndrome in Public University Buildings: A Cross-Sectional Study of Office Worker Health and Well-Being

Mohd Fairus Awang*, Roslena Md Zaini, Nasrul Amir Abdul, Mohd Rohaizat Mat Tahir, Aida Baharuddin, Siti Nurul Hunadia Husin, Nooraini Ahmad@Zakaria, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim & Haris Hafizal Abd Hamid


Exposure to indoor air pollution among office workers can result in various health issues and increase the incidence of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exposure to Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) among office workers and the relationship with the prevalence of SBS at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi. A cross-sectional comparison research involving 144 office workers from various new and old buildings was carried out at UKM, Bangi. Information was gathered and symptoms associated with SBS were determined using a series of questionnaires. During office hours, IAQ parameters were collected using air quality sensor. The old building had substantially higher levels of NO2 (24.26 ppb), CO (0.62 ppb), and PM10 (4.99 µg/m3) than the new building. It was found that, with a p < 0.001, the concentration of O3 in the new building (11.47 ppb) was significantly higher than in the old building (4.93 ppb). The study’s findings also showed that the difference in temperature between the old buildings (26°C) and new buildings (24°C) was statistically significant (p = 0.003). Referring to relative humidity (RH), the result of the old building is lower (56%) compared to the new building (62%). Although old buildings exhibited a higher prevalence of SBS (34.7%), it was found that there was no significant difference compared to new buildings (27.5%). According to the study’s findings, found that exposure to CO (χ2 = 5.242, p = 0.022), PM102 = 13.449, p < 0.001), and PM2.52 = 19.755, p < 0.001) among office workers with the prevalence of SBS has significant association. In conclusion, this study suggests that exposure to high levels of CO, PM10 and PM2.5 can increase the prevalence of SBS. Good housekeeping and regular maintenance of ventilation can keep good IAQ and reduce health effects among occupants.

Keywords: Health issues; Sick Building Syndrome; indoor air quality; office workers
24. Development of Mobile Application Prototype for Building Inspection Work

Hasnan Hashim* , Adi Irfan Che Ani, Kharizam Ismail, Rafidah Abd Karim, Alia Abdullah Saleh & Suhana Johar


Building surveyors traditionally relied on descriptive longhand surveys to record an information by hand during on-site building inspections. However, the traditional approach such as checklist that usually practiced were unstructured and unstandardized among organization. In certain cases, it might have a missing document and issue on time-consuming for analysis. Therefore, this mobile application prototype purposely built to track the building defects where it can be used on site during building inspection. This is to record the information according to 11 evaluation criteria namely defect classification, type of building, type of location, type of element, sub-element, causes of defects, defects categories, defect groups, type of defects, building condition level and priority level of repairs. Besides that, the pictures or images can also be kept as supporting evidence. This mobile application prototype included three development phases which are design and utilization, system installation and maintenance and implementation. This mobile application has been projected to be used with mobile devices such as tablets or smartphones. It can also be accessed either through Play Store (for Android User) or the App Store (for Apple’s iOS user). This mobile application also provides a convenient and alternative method in recording the real time findings instead of using manual checklist. Finally, it has the potential to be developed and commercialized with the addition of more user-friendly features.

Keywords: Mobile application; prototype; inspection work; building surveyors
25. Kaedah Menterjemah Unsur Alam Semulajadi Menjadi Karya Seni Dua Dimensi Dalam Projek Reka Bentuk Seni Bina Tahun Satu di UKM
Method of Translating Nature Elements into Two-dimensional Artwork in UKM’s First Year Architectural Design Project

Nor Haslina Ja’afar*, Kamarul Afizi Kosman & Mohd Khairul Azhar Mat Sulaiman


The Architecture Design Course 1 (KKSB1116) is the main subject course for the Bachelor of Architecture Science (BSc Arch) program at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). This course is offered in the first semester of year one and it is fundamental to the process of producing architectural design. The application of an experimental learning style is one of the ways to build awareness, knowledge and skills in the design learning process. This paper investigates the experiential learning style applied in the project of translating elements of nature into a self-portrait artwork using basic principles of design which are the lines and basic shapes of geometry. In this project, students were exposed to various learning methods such as experiential trip in nature, the use of sketch method in the form of mind map and the workshop environment. The research methodologies used are the combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches, where qualitative (in-depth interview and unstructured observation) is the main method. The findings showed that the students successfully translated objects from the elements of nature into the design project. It can be seen through a sketch of a graphic mind map and the production of a two-dimensional artwork design that highlights the basic principles of geometric design from a multidirectional combination of line sketches. This method of learning can be the benchmark for first year (basic) architectural education program especially for a bachelor of sciences level. The study suggests how the concept of the mind map approach and skills of workshop can be developed for the following year that is adapted to the program complexity.

Keywords: Learning method; architectural design project
26. Performance of Lower Ventilation Opening to Improve Air Change per Hour in Classroom at Tropical Humid Region (Case Study: Palembang City)

Tri Woro Setiati, Sandra Eka Febrina*, Fajar Sadik Islami


Fresh air circulation in a room had an impact on indoor air quality. In today’s pandemic, good fresh air circulation is one of the main strategies to prevent viruses from spreading through air molecules. A good ventilation opening design influences indoor air exchange. This research conducts a test on lower ventilation opening design that can maximize natural ventilation performance in a classroom. This test aimed at a recommendation for schools in the tropical humid region so they can hold offline learning with low virus spreads. Natural ventilation optimization should be a solution because not everyone can afford mechanical air filters or virus killers. This research used an experimental method. Computer simulation test variables were classroom openings consisting of existing openings, new outlets/openings, and lower ventilation opening. Parameters of observation are wind velocity, air circulation pattern, and air change per hour. This evaluation compares the experiment result to Air Change per Hour (ACH) threshold limit provision required in Indonesia. The result of the experiment shows outlet/opening addition provides a better impact on ACH escalation than with only existing classroom opening. And when the existing opening is closed, lower ventilation opening had good performance in achieving the ACH threshold limit provision requirements which were 9,8 ACH.

Keywords: Lower opening ventilation; classroom; tropic humid
27. Penyesuaian Guna Semula dan Kelestarian Rumah Kedai Warisan di Bandar Bersejarah di Malaysia
Adaptive Reuse and sustainability of Heritage Shop House in Historical Cities in Malaysia

Tan Kean Jie & Mohd Farid Mohamed


The rich history and architecture of Malacca are two of many factors that lead to earning the recognition as UNESCO’s World Heritage Site. The architecture of heritage shop houses is a very important architecture in the city. The architecture of shop houses is also an example of sustainable architecture that is designed according to the local socio-culture and environmental context. Therefore, the heritage shop house in the cities can survive and stay relevent until now even though the requirements of use have changed according to the current socio-cultural and economical needs. Scholars have emphasized on the practice of reusing old buildings as one of the conservation methods. Adaptive reuse is among the conservation methods. This practice conserves the existing buildings, while incorporating contemporary functions that befit with the modern days’ society. The objective of this research is to discuss on the sustainable design approaches of heritage shophouse and to investigate the adaptive reuse approach of shophouses in Jonker Street that have went through adaptive reuse process. The methodology for this research includes literature reviews, observation and personal interviews. The shophouses were selected as case study. The findings highlight on the adaptive reuse method as a model for conservation to improve on sustainability and building function while maintaining cultural and heritage appropriateness. The findings of the study also allow for a deeper understanding of sustainable design elements that exist in heritage shop houses.

Keywords: Adaptive reuse; sustainability; shophouse; Jonker Street
28. Potential Strategies for Revitalizing UKM Mosque in Enhancing Community Engagement

Mohd Farid Mohamed* & Wardah Fatimah Mohammad Yusoff


UKM (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) Mosque has existed in Bandar Baru Bangi for over 40 years, however, the locals’ involvement in its daily activities is still lack and has yet optimum. Thus, there is a need to revitalise UKM Mosque to be more relevant to local communities. At the same time, the mosque also requires a lot of maintenance and this incurs costs to UKM. With the recent budget cuts to universities by the Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE), as well as the Covid19 pandemic impact, the UKM Islamic Centre (UIC) has been encouraged to focus also on the income generation activities. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of revitalizing the UKM Mosque by proposing new facilities, renovation or any appropriate improvement that could lead to a greater impact on the local communities, as well as increase the income of the mosque to be financially sustainable. The method adopted in this study is the combination of literature review, case studies, series of discussions with related parties and a questionnaires survey. The outcome of the study is a list of proposed improvements with priority given to the facilities that meet the end users’ needs, such as cafe and elevators. The list could be a useful guideline for UIC to refer to before making any decisions on future development of UKM Mosque. This study is hoped to assist UIC to generate greater income and, at the same time provide more significant and meaningful impact on the local communities.

Keywords: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; mosque; communities; income generation
29. Kebitaraan Rupa Bentuk dan Perancangan Susun Atur Ruang Rumah Warisan Melayu dari Sudut Pandang Orientalis Abad Ke-19
The Uniqueness in Form and Space Layout Planning of Malay Heritage Houses Based on 19th Century Orientalists’ Perspectives

M Yusuf A Adam Broughton, Mazlan Mohd Tahir*, Mastor Surata & Ismar MS Usman


The architecture of Malay heritage houses is a manifestation of the greatness and wisdom of Malays in the past in building and creating their places of abode. The subtle philosophy, beliefs and rituals behind the erection process, in addition to the design features of the dwelling structures that are responsive and adaptive to the local tropical climate which creates thermal comfort and passive cooling within the interior spaces of the house. These unique elements and features have been regularly highlighted in various scientific studies on Malay heritage architecture by both local and foreign researchers and academics since the 1980s till today. Nonetheless, writings and records through studies and observations by European orientalists dating back to as early as the 19th century have long acknowledged the architectural marvel of the humble Malay heritage house. However, these early records are rarely highlighted and referred to today. The aim of this study is to gather these statements acknowledging the uniqueness and excellence of Malay heritage house architecture and comparing them with (i) the writings of modern-day researchers and (ii) interviews with several expert figures/ academics in the field of Malay heritage architecture conservation. This study will also analyze the importance and effectiveness of the basic space layout planning found in Malay heritage houses. The findings of the study suggests that the views and statements of 19th century orientalists in comparison to modernday researchers both acknowledge and share the same opinion and facts regarding the uniqueness and excellence of Malay heritage house architecture.

Keywords: Uniqueness; form; space layout planning; Malay heritage houses; 19th century orientalists
30. Pentafsiran Reka Bentuk Kurikulum Pendidikan Seni Bina Ecole des Beaux Art dari Sudut Pandang Pendidikan Seni Bina Malaysia
Intepretation of Ecole des Beaux Arts Architecture Education Curriculum from The Perspective of Malaysian Architecture Education

Kamarul Afizi Kosman* & Sarah Mohd Hilmee


This research aims to highlight the distinctive features found in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts architectural education curriculum, the first formal architectural educational institution in Europe during the 17th century that influenced most architectural education curriculum formation at the international level including curriculum in Malaysia. The aim of this research is to provide a foundation of understanding to the parties involved in architectural education regarding the origins and fundamental features of an architectural curriculum. The research methodology adopted in this research is Interpretive Historical Research where historical facts obtained will go through evidence investigation sessions, collection, and compilation of evidence and will be concluded with narrative construction. The architectural education curriculum implemented by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts is not stated in a structured manner as the global curriculum practices today. Therefore, this research specifically highlights the translation method of blurred curriculum information, which is in the form of storytelling on past architectural learning situations into a structured curriculum that can be evaluated in physical form and compared with the current architectural education system. The findings of the research showed that there are specific features in the architectural education curriculum by Ecole des Beaux-Arts based on the course breakdown method as practiced in the Malaysian architectural education system today.

Keywords: Ecole des Beaux-Arts; Architecture Curriculum; Malaysian Architectural Education
31. Analisis Prestasi Terma Penghadang Suria Luaran Sedia Ada di Kampung Admiralty, Singapura
Thermal Performance Analysis of Existing External Solar Shading at Kampung Admiralty, Singapore

Low Shi Nii, Zabidi Hamzah*, Noraziah Mohammad & Mazlan Mohd Tahir


External Solar shadings have long been designed as an integral part of a building’s facade for functional, aesthetic and privacy reasons. From a functional aspect, it is used to reduce heat and glare, thus helping to improve the thermal as well as lighting quality of the building. In a tropical climate, the yearlong sun radiation, especially those facing the eastern and western building facades with large glazed surfaces may show severe thermal and glare discomfort issues. This paper analyses the impact of the existing shading system of the vertical and horizontal fins and green facades of The Admiralty Village building in Singapore. A thermal imaging camera was used to detect thermal readings from all of the facade’s shading systems. From the result comparison, each facade of the building requires a different shading treatment due to the different sunlight angles. The south facade is best shaded with horizontal shading. East and west facades require shading that blocks sunlight entering at low angles. The north facade can be left unshaded. Green walls with highly dense vegetation perform more effectively than thermal insulation in reducing the cooling load of the building. This study further convinced the need for solar shading devices, especially in the southern facades of tropical countries.

Keywords: Tropical climate; shading devices; thermal performance; infrared thermography
32. Seaweed House Interior Design in Promoting a Contemporary Habitat and Promoting Tourism in Yandunjiao Village in Rongcheng City (Shandong Region, China)

Chengcheng Zhao, Noraziah Mohammad* & Nor Haslina Ja’afar


In the process of developing cities and regions, traditional Chinese architecture has been destroyed to a certain extent and the existing traditional architecture has become particularly precious. There is a contradiction within the modernization development phases and the protection of traditional architecture. To find a sustainable development way for the traditional villages is a problem that needs to be considered. The purpose of this study is to investigate how to preserve and redesign traditional architecture such as Seaweed House to adapt them to contemporary life and to promote tourism and economy of the region. The methods of fieldwork, participant observation and interview were used in the study. The findings indicated that the local residents have no initiative for the protection of traditional buildings. There are also certain deficiencies in the building, including a lack of space for modern equipment and leisure spaces in the Seaweed House. There is a lack of privacy in these dwellings due to the wooden structure and poor sound insulation between the rooms. The owner of the house used new and inappropriate materials when they renovated their house in recent years, resulting in a chaotic style and aesthetic. Some solutions are provided for these issues throughout this research study. It was also found that many traditional buildings have a lot of common problems in the process of protection and development. Once these problems are solved, the protection and development of traditional Chinese architecture will have progress.

Keywords: Seaweed house; heritage protection; interior design
33. Prestasi Akustik Stesen Mrt (Mass Rapid Transit) Bawah Tanah Berdasarkan Penggunaan Bahan Binaan
Acoustic Performance of Underground MRT (Mass Rapid Transit) Station Based on the Utilisation of Building Materials

Najmie Jamaludin, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim*, Ismar Minang Satotoy Usman


The existence of public transport services system such as MRT (Mass Rapid Transit) is one of the most important aspects in an urban environment. Nevertheless, the impact of sound produced by the trains and the crowds are causing disturbance to the urban environment. The importance of this study is to identify the impact of building materials in the acoustic performance of the underground MRT station in improving the level of users’ comfort. There are three methods of data collection in this study. The first method involves data collection from articles, thesis and books related to the acoustic performance and human comfort. The second method is based on the data collection on site which involves the measurement of the acoustic performance inside the existing MRT underground station using decibel meter. The third method involves the study of the acoustic performance inside the underground station by producing 3D models and by running acoustic simulations within the station models through I-Simpa software. MRT Cochrane station in Cheras was selected for the studies based on its characteristic which is located at the underground level and largely enclosed. Based on the collected data from the field measurement and the computer simulation, this study manages to determine the acoustic performance of the MRT underground station and further proposes acoustic improvement through the manipulation of building materials.

Keywords: Acoustic; public transportation; MRT; I-Simpa; user comfort
34. Pendekatan Biomimikri – Ilham Alam Semula Jadi dalam Reka Bentuk Seni Bina
Biomimicry Approach – Nature’s Inspiration in Architectural Design

Toh Lai Fun, Shahril Ezral Shahril Izuan, Zabidi Hamzah*, Noraziah Mohammad, Mazlan Mohd Tahir


Biomimicry is a growing field of research in architecture and engineering. It is characterized as a flora, fauna or entire ecosystem that is modeled as the basis of design because of its potential to create a more sustainable or regenerative built environment. However, one obstacle that needs to be noted in the application of biomimicry is in terms of the lack of a clear definition of the various biomimicry approaches that can be used by designers. The objectives of the study include analyzing biomimicry and its integration methods in architectural design as well as identifying various biomimicry approaches in architectural design. Through a literature review, this research paper describes different approaches to biomimicry design. A comparison of biomimicry and ecomimicry has been highlighted to discuss the differences in features that aid in design. These diverse approaches can lead to different outcomes in terms of overall sustainability. Next, the biomimicry approach in architectural design that combines the understanding of ecosystems can necessarily be the main pillar to create a built environment in the integration and regeneration of natural ecosystems. From the research, it becomes increasingly clear that a shift in the approach to the designed built environment must be made Imitating life, including the complex interactions between living organisms that make up ecosystems are examples that are easy to find and learn. This approach provides mutual benefits between humans and nature and should be a future agenda.

Keywords: Biomimicry; architectural design; ecomimicry
35. Persepsi Pengguna terhadap Kontena Sebagai Alternatif Bangunan Komersial di Malaysia I: Kerangka dan Kaedah Kajian
User Perception Towards Shipping Container as an Alternative of Commercial Building in Malaysia I: A Research Framework and Approach

Muhammad Farihan Irfan Mohd Nor*, Mohd. Iskandar Abd Malek, Ismar M.S Usman & Ameera Zulaikha


On an overall scale, this study was conducted to identify the perception of users towards containers as an alternative choice to commercial buildings in Malaysia and also the environmental design criterias that could contribute towards the thermal comfort of a container. This paper, which is the first of two parts, focuses on the development of the research framework and approach used for the techniques and methodologies to conduct the research. It describes the development of the research methodology which brought to the adoption of mixed methods as the appropriate method to answer the objectives of the study. Based on this method, the research technique begins with the development of a closed-ended questionnaire which will then be distributed to guests and users of the selected locations to identify user perceptions. This is followed by the second step, which was to develop a series of case studies based on the three selected locations. Subsequently is the third step, which is also the final step; a brief observation and analysis of the findings taken from the data collection from all three locations. This process ultimately aims to identify environmental design criteria that can contribute to the thermal comfort of a container. This research framework will later guide the data collection and analysis process for this study and the results are expected to function as a reference in understanding user’s perception of thermal comfort in containers as well as designing the container environment as a commercial building space suitable for tropical climate.

Keywords: Container; user perception; thermal comfort; commercial buildings
36. Persepsi Pengguna Terhadap Kontena Sebagai Alternatif Bangunan Komersial di Malaysia II: Kajian Kes
User Perception Towards Shipping Container as an Alternative of Commercial Building in Malaysia II: A Case Study

Muhammad Farihan Irfan Mohd Nor*, Mohd. Iskandar Abd Malek, Ismar M.S Usman & Ameera Zulaikha


This study, which is the second of two parts, was conducted to identify the perception of users towards containers as an alternative to commercial buildings in Malaysia and also the environmental design criterias that could contribute towards the thermal comfort of a container. The methodology used for this study was a mixed method approach. The context of this research includes three existing container projects in the Klang Valley. The first research technique was a closed-ended questionnaire survey that was distributed to users to identify user perceptions. Subsequently, the second research technique involved developing case studies and observing the physical condition of all the three selected locations. Finally, an analysis was made based on the findings from the closed-ended questionnaire survey and physical observation of all the three container projects in order to identify the environmental design criteria that can contribute to thermal comfort in the container. The findings from the results of this study show that the majority of users relatively feel comfortable staying and carrying out activities in the three container buildings and the container building that is said to have the highest level of comfort is surrounded by soft landscaping and has an ideal orientation position to the angle of the sun’s path. The result of this study is a document that can be used as a reference in understanding the perception of users towards thermal comfort of containers as well as designing a container environment as a commercial building space that is suitable for a tropical climate. This article gives focus on results and analysis of the conducted case studies.

Keywords: Containers; user perception; thermal comfort; commercial buildings
37. Kajian Terhadap Karakter Fizikal Fakad Bangunan bagi Tipo-Morfologi Rumah Kedai Tradisional dan Baharu di Jalan Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kuala Lumpur
A Study on Physical Character of Building Facades for Traditional and New Shop House Typo-Morphology in Jalan Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kuala Lumpur

Mohd Iskandar Abdul Malek*, Nor Haslina Jaa’far, Ismar M. S. Usman, M.F.I Mohd-Nor, Noorsaidi Mahat, I Nyoman Gede Maha Putra


The urbanization process of townships resulted in increased population needs and a change in old to modern lifestyles. Infrastructure development in old urban centers around the world is also growing rapidly over time. The process of the uncontrolled development of the morphology of the old city has greatly changed the pattern of the urban fabric, especially the buildings of the shophouses, as well as changing the physical character of the building facades as well as the overall design quality of the urban landscape. The renovation of the shophouse building to a more modern construction creates a building typology that is not responsive to the urban fabric and local context. The difference in typology has influenced the importance of the physical character of an area to the quality of its design. Many researchers and figures in the field of urbanization argue that the changing typology of new buildings due to this uncontrolled phase of urban morphology leaves various adverse impacts on the urban fabric and communities within the city. This paper aims to identify and analyze the physical character of the facades of old shophouses and new shophouses that affect the row of shophouse typologies that change according to the township’s timeline. The study area is located in Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman where a block of buildings consisting of several shops was chosen as the study site. Empirical examination from this study determines the physical character criteria of buildings that contribute to design quality as well as documenting the effect of physical character of buildings on design quality in Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman. Therefore, the results of this study and findings can be used as exposure and guidance to architects and urban planners in understanding the importance of the physical character of old shophouses, especially in Malaysia.

Keywords: Typo-morphology; typology; physical character; façade
38. Strategi Penyesuaigunaan terhadap Bangunan Kompleks Membeli-belah Yang Semakin Mati – Kajian Kes UTC Pudu Sentral
Adaptive Reuse Strategy Towards Dying Shopping Complex Building – Case Study UTC Pudu Sentral

Suhana Johar*, Ahmad Syahmi Abdul Aznan, Noraziah Mohammad, Ahmad Firkry Khairy Ahmad Mustafa


Adaptive reuse is one of the popular solutions for conserving an old building by programming a new use from the original. This approach is commonly applied and seen in historical buildings or aging building that portrays their significant heritage characters. Large-sized and complex buildings such as shopping centers are no exception to the decline in use, especially when the existence of new modern shopping complexes built surrounding it, making the existing aging complexes become dead and eventually left abandoned. This study is to identify the method and strategy of the adaptive reuse approach of old complex buildings such as shopping center buildings or big-box buildings that are dying, and the focus of the study is on the Klang Valley area which has an abundance of the types of this building. UTC Pudu Sentral was used as a case study where an in-depth investigation was conducted on it through an interview session with the management of the building. Several interventions of the adaptation approach for complex buildings have been identified, and the selection of these repurpose methods is based on aspects of sustainability such as consideration of resources, the economy, and energy use. The result of this survey provides a preliminary overview of the reuse opportunities for the dying complex buildings and prioritizes this method as one of the more sustainable construction methods for the future which simultaneously reduces the number of abandoned buildings due to the overwhelming of modern shopping centers around the Klang Valley.

Keywords: Adaptive reuse; shopping malls; complex buildings; sustainability
39. Punca-punca Kelewatan Pengeluaran Perakuan Siap dan Pematuhan (CCC) Projek Perumahan di Malaysia
Causes of delay in Issuance Certificate Completion and Compliance (CCC) of Housing Projects in Malaysia

Noraziah Mohammad*, Aishah Samsudin, Suhana Johar, Mazlan Mohd Tahir


The Certificate of Completion and Compliance (CCC) was implemented in April 2007. The Certificate of Completion and Compliance is a certificate that confirms that a building is eligible and safe to occupy, issued by the main person who submits it. Most of the housing projects fail to hand over the building to the buyer within a set time period such as in the sale and purchase agreement caused by the failure to issue a completion certificate and compliance. This study aims to identify the causes of delays in issuing certificates of completion and compliance for housing projects in Malaysia. Qualitative methods through literature review have been used to identify the processes of issuing certificates of completion and compliance (CCC) of housing projects in Malaysia and to identify the causes of delays in issuing certificates of completion and compliance (CCC). Next, a questionnaire was conducted on 141 respondents to identify the causes of delays in issuing Certificates of Completion and Compliance (CCC) for housing projects in Malaysia. The results of the literacy study found that 18 causes of delay in the issuance of completion and compliance certificates. The findings found that the main contributors to the delay in issuing completion certificates and compliance for housing projects in Malaysia are caused by developers, consultants, contractors, local authorities, external technical agencies and others.

Keywords: Certificate completion and compliance; housing project and delay issuance of certificate
40. Analisis Faktor Kejelasan di Bekas Pekan Perlombongan Timah di Lembah Kinta, Perak untuk Pembentukan Strategi Pemuliharaan Bandar
Analysis Of Legibility Factor at Former Tin Mining Towns in Lembah Kinta, Perak towards Formulating Urban Conservation Strategies

Mohd Rifzal Mohd Shariff, Nor Haslina Ja’afar*, Elina Mohd Husini, Suhana Johar, & Noor Hayati Ismail


Pembentukan Pekan Papan, salah sebuah pekan lama perlombongan bijih timah di Lembah Kinta, Perak, berkait rapat dengan perkembangan aktiviti ekonomi yang menunjukkan perkembangan budaya campur antara kaum di Malaysia. Senario ini dapat dilihat melalui penciptaan bangunan yang dikelilingi oleh landskap kawasan perlombongan bijih timah, struktur bandar terancang dan kekayaan ciri seni bina yang menentukan nilai budayanya. Pada masa ini, keadaan bangunan tersebut terabai disebabkan oleh pembandaran pesat dan pemasukan bandar yang tidak terkawal, yang telah mengancam pekan lama walaupun struktur dan sifat tersendiri bandar itu mengusang. Makalah ini memfokuskan cara strategi pemuliharaan bekas pekan perlombongan bijih timah di Malaysia yang merupakan antara sebab entiti warisan budaya rakyat Malaysia dilindungi, yang boleh dihasilkan dengan mengkaji ciri fizikal elemennya. Dengan menggunakan kaedah kajian kualitatif, penyelidikan ini meneroka, mengenal pasti dan menilai elemen ketara dengan meninjau semula definisi dan konsep sifat fizikal serta nilai budaya daripada perspektif pemuliharaan bandar menyifatkan identiti sesuatu tempat melalui pemahaman faktor kejelasan. Kajian ini penting untuk memahami ciri-ciri fizikal bekas pekan perlombongan bijih timah yang ada kini terbiar, mengusang dan mungkin akan musnah tidak lama lagi. Kajian ini akan memperkaya dokumentasi bersejarah dan strategi pemuliharaan dengan merangsang hubungan antara deria tempat dengan kualiti pengalaman berkaitan dengan aktiviti sosial dan budaya sebagai sebahagian daripada ciri keunikan pekan lama yang dapat dinikmati oleh pihak berkepentingan dan generasi masa depan.

Keywords: Pemuliharaan bandar; bekas pekan perlombongan bijih timah; sifat fizikal; kejelasan
41. The Building of A’Famosa Malacca on The Ruins of The Grand Mosque of Melaka – Based on Historical Records

Noor Aisyah Mokhtar


Melaka Sultanate Kingdom through its long centuries ruling must have majestic civilisation as lots of historical records by Europeans voyagers mentioned the great and powerful kingdom of Melaka during the Melaka Sultanate Empire – especially its Grand Mosque. Despite the many records of the mosque, its existence was still doubtful and questionable because there was no clear or obvious physical evidence that can be used as a basis support to the legitimacy of its existence. Thus, this study aims to uncover and identify historical evidence which state the validity of the its existence. The scope of this study focuses only on the physical building (which is believed to be historical evidence) of the Grand Mosque that historically believed was once built at the foot of Melaka Hill next to Melaka River. The method focused on this paper is through historical sources, previous studies as well as relevant scientific records. This research stated that the mosque indeed exists in historical writing and drawings, and was a square in geometry that fits in the philosophy and basic design of a mosque which after Portuguese conquisation – a fort was built on its ruins that known as A’Famosa. In conclusion, the Grand Mosque of Melaka once existed and mentioned in both historical records and drawings where later the famous A’Famosa Fort was built on its site and ruins. This study can be a catalyst for continuous and deeper research in the future on the original site and design of Grand Mosque.

Keywords: Grand Mosque of Melaka, ruins, A’Famosa
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