Table of Contents

Front Page

No. Article Page  
1. Hubungan Latihan Keselamatan, Peraturan Dan Prosedur Keselamatan Terhadap Prestasi Keselamatan Anggota Kerja GIATMARA
Relationship of Safety Training, Safety Rules and Procedures to the Safety Performance of GIATMARA Workers
Muhamad Rosly Talib, Rafeizah Mohd Zulkifli* & Mohd Azlan Mohammad Hussain Abstract

Safety performance holds a vital role in developing safety management in the workplace, aiming to ensure both safety compliance and safety participation in the organization. Safety performance also contributes to and determines the success of accident prevention program implementation. This study was conducted to identify the relationship between safety training, safety rules and procedures, and the safety performance of employees at GIATMARA. This study is a quantitative study that uses a survey research design. The research instrument is a questionnaire and involves 128 respondents among GIATMARA workers in the state of Perak. The results of the Pearson correlation statistical analysis show that there is a significant and positive relationship between safety training (r = .496, p ≤ 0.01), as well as safety rules and procedures (r = .593 **, p ≤ 0.01) on safety performance. The results of this study prove that safety training and safety rules and procedures affect the safety performance of an organization. Therefore, every organization needs to ensure that each employee receives adequate safety training and is provided with well-organized and clear safety rules and procedures.

Keywords : safety training, safety rules and procedures, safety participation, and safety performance
2. The Validation of Project Management Reference Framework Using Rasch Model
Mohd Firdaus Mustaffa Kamal*, Haryanti Mohd Affandi, Adam Aruldewan S. Muthuveeran & Nasyairi Mat Nasir Abstract

A project management reference framework has been developed to deal with the scarcity of a commonly recognized term of reference for Malaysian public project management. The development of this framework was instigated by the lack of terms of reference for the practice to generate the key competencies that public project managers should acquire. In this study, a working framework has been validated using the RASCH measurement model to see whether the construct identified is fit to be included within the framework. A Questionnaire survey has been used for data collection. The sample chosen was from G7 construction companies registered with CIDB and government organizations involved with construction projects. Data has been analyzed using dimensionality test and item fit testing. Through the analysis, the construct, which consists of twenty-four significant activities, has been identified to be included in the five major phases of the project lifecycle, namely the inception stage, design stage, tendering stage, construction stage, and closeout stage. With this analysis, a working Project Management Reference Framework has been validated and hopefully beneficial to the industry’s practitioner.

Keywords: Project Management, Reference Framework, RASCH Measurement Model
11 – 19
3. Challenges and Experience in Training Intellectually Disabled Students in the National Floristry Competition: Toward the WorldSkills Competitions
Nadzimah Idris, Abdul Rahim Razalli* & Mohd Ridhuan Mohd Jamil Abstract

Malaysia is one of the 85 member nations competing in the WorldSkills Competition, which unites two-thirds of the world’s population. The WorldSkills mission is to encourage and assist 100 million young people in advancing their skills by 2030. This study investigated how teacher (special education teacher), the community (instructor), and expert, train an intellectually disabled student for the National Floristry Competition. As a precursor for the WorldSkills Competition, this study examined their experiences and difficulties in training intellectually disabled student for this competition. This study uses a purposive sampling method with three participants rather than a random one. Based on a case study research design, it employs ethnographic participant observation and indepth interviews, among other techniques. The study determined that student with special needs should participate in international skill competitions as early as possible. The Malaysian floristry industry has significant untapped potential, and students with intellectual disabilities can access it if they receive ongoing guidance and training. To be successful in the WorldSkills Competition, Malaysia must overcome financial, time, and knowledge limitations. This study illustrates the difficulties and lessons learned in preparing an intellectually disabled student for the national floristry competition. These empirical investigations result in a deeper understanding and are crucial to academicians as the path for future planning and generating future young talents for the WorldSkills Competition.

Keywords: WorldSkills Competition; Intellectual disability; Floristry Competition; untapped potential; future young talents
21 – 30
4. Enhancing Higher Order Thinking Skills Among TVET Students: HyperDocs as a Tool for TVET Teachers
Mohd Ridhuan Mohd Jamila*, Nurulrabihah Mat Nohb, Nadzimah Idrisa, Mohd Syaubari Othmana & Mohd Muslim bin Md Zalli Abstract

HyperDocs are interactive digital documents containing links to various digital resources and activities. These learning tools provide students with an interactive and self-directed learning experience that allows them to investigate, generate, and collaborate in a digital environment. HyperDocs have recently experienced a significant surge in usage across various fields. Despite the widespread use of HyperDocs and their potential to improve classroom learning, additional research is required to ascertain their effectiveness in educational settings. This investigation aimed to identify patterns in advanced cognitive abilities to improve Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) educators’ understanding of HyperDocs activities. Using Bloom’s Taxonomy as a theoretical framework, the TVET instructor conducted a document analysis of HyperDocs to determine the intellectual level of student activities. During this investigation, a significant quantity of previously unrevealed information has been uncovered. The study results indicate that HyperDocs activities comprise the entire spectrum of cognitive abilities outlined in Bloom’s taxonomy. The analysis reveals that most HyperDocs activities involve lower-order thinking skills such as remembering, comprehending, and applying. Higher-order thinking skills such as analyzing, evaluating, and creating are utilized less frequently, accounting for only 45.1% of all activities. Although HyperDocs’ activities often incorporate primary forms of reasoning, the difference in performance is only 9.8%. The results of the present investigation indicate that the integration of HyperDocs within the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) domains has the potential to augment cognitive processing.

Keywords: HyperDocs; Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET); Bloom’s Taxonomy; Improving classroom teaching; Higher-order thinking skills (HOTS)
31 – 43
5. Hubungan di antara Pengetahuan dengan Amalan Hijau serta Langkah-Langkah Meningkatkan Pengetahuan dan Amalan Hijau dalam Kalangan Pelajar Sekolah Menengah
Relationship between Knowledge and Green Practices and Measures to Enhance Green Knowledge and Practices Among Secondary School Students
Siti Filzah Liyana Ismail, Zaliza Hanapi*, Anies Faziehan Zakaria, Tang Jing Rui, Rafeizah Zulkifli, Mohd Syahriman Mohd Azmi, Mohd Firdaus Mustaffa Kamal & Nuruljannah Yusof Abstract

This study aims to identify the relationship between knowledge and green practices among form two students in secondary schools in Malaysia.This study uses a quantitative research approach. The research instrument used is a set of questionnaires containing 37 items with a 5-point Likert scale as a medium for data collection.Purposive sampling was chosen as the study design by selecting students in form two. Data was analyzed through IBM SPSS statistical application using descriptive and inferential analysis. The results of the study show that the highest mean score for the response of form 2 students to the knowledge of green practices is encouraging (M=4.10, SP=0.90).Meanwhile, the response of form 2 students to green practices is quite low and should be noted with the highest mean score of 4.22 with a standard deviation of 0.910 (“I make sure the light switch and fan are turned off before leaving the room”).Pearson Correlation analysis showed a significant positive relationship between knowledge and green practices with r = 0.546, p = 0.00 (p<0.05). In addition, the overall mean analysis for measures to increase knowledge and green practices is at a moderately high level of 3.57.In conclusion, knowledge and green practices are at a moderate level and not yet satisfactory.This study gives students awareness about the importance of green science knowledge contributing to the formation of good green practices in the individual's self-concept.

Keywords: Relationships, Knowledge; Green practices; Form two student, High school
45 – 50
6. Systematic Review of Malaysia Technical and Vocational Education (TVET) Sustainability Framework to Increase the Marketability of Graduates Using PRISMA
Ridzwan Che Rus*, Monsuru Adekunle Salisu, Mohd Azlan Mohammad Hussain, Mohd Firdaus Mustaffa Kamal, Zaliza Hanapi, Mariam Oluwatoyin Idris, Nurudeen Babatunde Bamiro & Bakare Kazeem Kayode Abstract

The marketability of Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) graduates is a key factor in promoting Malaysia’s economic growth and development. Therefore, seeking a sustainable marketability framework for TVET will reduce educational wastage in TVET, increase enrolment, increase TVET sectoral contributions to GDP, and provide justification for taxpayer money used to finance the institution. Only a few studies have attempted to review the literature on this topic systematically. The Springer, Taylor & Francis, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases are employed in this systematic literature review, which is guided by the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis) standards. A rigorous keyword search of the online databases produced 71 papers from 2017 to 2022, 29 of which were research that was relevant to the issue. The findings revealed that curriculum-related factors, skill gap factors, and poor stakeholder engagement are the basic factors impacting the marketability of the TVET graduate. The study recommends that The TVET regulatory bodies should strive to embark on curriculum revision to close the skill gap between the classroom and the industry, The curriculum of TVET should be improved and updated in every five years to catch up with industrial needs and there should be an effective partnership in all ramifications between TVET institutions and the industry.

Keywords: Marketability of TVET Graduate; Sustainability Framework; Curriculum revision; 21st century skills; industrial linkage
51 – 63
7. Development of Edu-Fertiblox Digital Game Using Roblox as a Teaching Aid for the Fertigation System Topic in the Design and Technology Subject Form 1
Hafiz Athram Nasir, Fardila Mohd Zaihidee*, Siti Fairuz Yusoff, Hisbulloh Als Mustofa & Shafeeqa Shahruddin Abstract

A lack of practical facilities frequently causes problems for teachers and students. The Edu-Fertiblox digital game has been developed for the purpose of being a teaching aid (TA) for the topic of Fertigation Systems in Design Technology Subject Form 1. This study aimed to identify the needs of TAs for the topic of fertigation systems, develop the Edu-Fertiblox digital game as a TA, and assess the usability of the digital game. The development of this game is using the ADDIE model as a research design. The digital game was developed using Roblox Studio. After that, Edu-Fertiblox was evaluated for its usability by three informants, consisting of teaching staff who are experts in Design and Technology. The findings showed all the informants agreed that the Edu-Fertiblox digital game can be used as a teaching aid for the Fertigation System topic of Design and Technology Form 1.

Keywords: Roblox, Digital, Teaching Aid, ADDIE, Gamification
65 – 72
8. A New Modification of 3 in 1 Standing Frame for Children with Cerebral Palsy
Fatimahwati Hamzah, Saiful Hasley Ramli, Sazlina Kamaralzaman, Rosalam Che Med Noraini Naseran & Umawathy Techanamurthy Abstract

Standing Frame (SF) is commonly used in rehab training for children with cerebral palsy (CP), but the design regarding patients’ needs, conditions, and environments is rarely investigated. In this study, the researchers modified the standing frame by adding a controlling and monitoring system and included a 3 in 1 design that consisted of lying down, sitting, and standing postures. Six (6) volunteer respondents answered the questionnaire, and three (3) participants with CP were involved in this research to determine the usability of the modified 3 in 1 SF. The result of the questionnaire found that the 3-in-1 SF developed were interesting products, easy to use, safe, creative, and innovative products. Furniture Testing Laboratory results are: there are no fractures of any member, joint, or component, there is no loosening of joints intended to be rigid, seating fulfills its functions after removal of the best loads, and seating fulfills the stability requirement. Overall, 3 in 1 SF is well-developed, but a little bit of improvement is still needed for further research. Hopefully, the 3 in 1 SF will help the children with CP develop self-reliance and assist them in their everyday activities at home and school.

Keywords : cerebral palsy, assistive technology devices, standing frame, design, rehab
73 – 84
9. Design and Feasibility Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic System for Electrifying a Healthcare Centre in a Rural Area of Malaysia: A Case Study
Wan Robiah Wan Ismail, Norlie Yuzanna Ibrahim, Shafura Sharif, Normazlina Mat Isa & Anies Faziehan Zakaria Abstract

Malaysia is strategically located at the sunbelt viability, where it receives a large amount of sunshine every day. This makes the solar photovoltaic technology popularly utilized particularly in rural areas that are isolated from the main grid. These areas have the potential to use photovoltaic technology to meet load requirements. Compared to grid connected photovoltaic systems, standalone photovoltaic systems offer several benefits to system owners including low maintenance, low upkeep cost, no waste or by-products, and easy expansion through the use of multiple solar panels and batteries. This article presents a design phase of the Standalone Photovoltaic System (SAPVS) to electrify the healthcare centre in Kampung Tewowoh, Kluang, Johor. The design steps for SAPVS are discussed to obtain the required parameter for each component in the SAPVS. The results indicate that 16 panels, 1219.52Ah/day, 1437.5A and 350 (A) are needed for the PV panels, battery capacity, inverter, and charge controller, respectively. It is proven that SAPVs are technically viable and feasible for electrifying the healthcare centre in the specified area.

Keywords: standalone photovoltaic system, healthcare centre, solar, technical design, solar panel
85 – 92
10. Tahap Burnout dan Kepuasan Kerja dalam Kalangan Pensyarah Kolej Komuniti Kuala Langat
Level of Burnout and Job Satisfaction Among Kuala Langat Community College Lecturers
Saraswathy Dhanalingam, Jamunarani Muthusamy, Rashidah Binti Abu & Umawathy Techanamurthy Abstract

This study aims to identify the level of burnout and job satisfaction among Kuala Langat Community College lecturers. The objective of this study is to measure and identify the relationship between the level of burnout and job satisfaction among lecturers. The study sample was carried out involving 92 respondents. Questionnaires Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Job Descriptive Index (JDI) were used as research instruments. Data has been analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) version 19. The findings show burnout levels among lecturers is at medium level for personal achievement subscale and a low level for emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscale. The level of job satisfaction is at a moderate level. The results of the correlation analysis test also found that there is a significant negative linear relationship between the level of burnout and level of job satisfaction but in a weak context in which Pearson Correlation (r) value is 0.321 which is in the weak correlation range (r = -0.321, p < 0.01). Hence, the findings of this study can be used by the Human Resource Development Division to carry out strategies for mitigating burnout and increasing job satisfaction among lecturers.

Keywords: Burnout; Job Satisfaction; Community College; Lecturer
91 – 104
11. Tour Leader’s Service Attributes Towards Customer Retention
Aishah Mohd Nor, Noranira Maamin & Anies Faziehan Zakaria Abstract

This study aims to identify the level of tour leaders’ service attributes towards customer retention. It also examines the most influence factors of tour leaders’ service attributes towards customer retention. The factors that affect customer retention was also investigated. The primary data were collected using a structured questionnaire with Malaysian outbound tourists who travelled by group package tour (GPT) to Asian and non-Asian countries and had an experienced a tour leader service. The results revealed that the service attributes of the tour leader are significant to customer retention. The findings also revealed that tour leaders’ professional attitude and ability, professional knowledge and personal integrity and Islamic Values were significantly positively affected towards Customer Retention. The result mentioned, if the tour leaders’ service attributes is high, it is likely that the customer retention will be increased. However, to sustain and create business repetition, the travel agency should improve the presentation and communication skills even though after carefully examine, presentation and communication ability independent variable need to remove from the initial model due it has the highest value non-significant probability value. Thus, travel agencies also need to pay special attention to the performances and attitudes of the tour leaders’ services to ensure long term growth and success of the firm.

Keywords: tour leader, service attributes, customer retention, customer satisfaction, group package tour, travel agency, outbound travel
107 – 114
12. Literature Review of 4Cs Skills in Engineering Education
Amalina Ismail, Nuryazmin Ahmat Zainuri*, Noorhelyna Razali, Izamarlina Asshaari & Nur Arzilah Ismail Abstract

The twenty-first century (21st century) is the era of information fusion where there is dramatic change in the world of knowledge and technology. In this context, engineering education has been based on the knowledge of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) to train the future workforce. This paper focuses on understanding the significance of communication, collaboration, creativity, and critical thinking skills (4Cs skills) in engineering education from previous literature. Analysis displays the specific subs-skills within 4Cs skills needed by engineering students and how to inculcate the skills into students. Communication skills are the most demanded skills in industry while creativity skills are the least emphasized skills in engineering education. There are limited studies to compare whether the skills possessed by engineering students meet the industry demand.

Keywords: 21st Century Skills; STEM; Engineering Graduate
115 – 120
13. An Exploratory Study on Causes and Effects of Miscommunication Error Among Maintenance Crew
Munirah Mohd Fadzil, Izamarlina Asshaari*, Muhammad Cairel Alban Shaharugi, Abdul Ghani Abdul Samad & Puteri Nur Syaza Wardiah Abstract

Verbal and written communication are both valid methods for conveying a message; communication is an extremely important factor in the process of passing on information. In both the aviation industry and the maintenance industry, poor communication is consistently a major issue. The failure of the members of the maintenance crew to communicate effectively could, without a doubt, place the lives of other people in jeopardy. Therefore, this study is conducted to investigates the factors that contributed to, and the consequences of, miscommunication error and the correlation between it. The cause depicted for miscommunication error among maintenance crew are poor language proficiency, poor documentation, lack of technical term proficiency and lack of communication meanwhile its negatively impacts maintenance organization. To identify the causes and consequences of miscommunication errors among maintenance crew, the survey data is analyzed using a bar chart, and Spearman correlation is used to investigate the relationship between causes and effects. According to the results of the Spearman correlation, there are five moderately strong correlations between causes and effects and three weak correlations. It is recommended that further research be done on engineers and technicians working in maintenance repair organizations (MRO) to gather more reliable data.

Keywords: Miscommunication error; Maintenance crew; Maintenance repair organization (MRO); Correlation
121 – 126
14. Exploring Students’ Achievements in Differential Equations Courses and Their Feelings Towards Mathematics Courses
Nur Arzilah Ismail, Nuryazmin Ahmat Zainuri*, Noorhelyna Razali, Zulkifli Mohd Nopiah, Muhamad Alias Md. Jedi, Haliza Othman & Wan Zawiah Wan Zin Abstract

Differential equations are a fundamental area of mathematics that is widely used in various fields, including physics, engineering, economics, and more. However, many students find this course to be particularly challenging and struggle to achieve success in differential equations courses. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the relationship between students’ achievements in midterm and final exams differential equations courses and their feelings towards mathematics courses, to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the factors that contribute to success in this challenging course. The results of this study indicate a positive correlation between students’ achievements in differential equations courses and their feelings toward mathematics. Male students performed slightly better than female students for marks above 50. Additionally, students who enjoyed all the mathematics courses had higher grades in differential equations courses, which was statistically significant. These findings also highlight the importance of midterm exams as preparation before seating for the final exam of differential equations.

Keywords: Differential equation; Mathematics courses; Pearson correlation; Spearman correlation.
127 – 134
15. A Preliminary Discussion on STEM-Drone Sport’s Athlete Development Program toward Career Relevance
Anies Faziehan Zakaria*, Mohd Zulfadli Rozali & Mohd Syafiq Syazwan Mustafa Abstract

This article aims to explore the potential for STEM education and athlete development programs to enhance career relevance in drone sports. This article provides an overview of the significance of STEM education in career development and outlines the potential for drone sports in terms of career development. This paper highlights the critical role of STEM education and athlete development programs in shaping a sustainable career path for drone sports professionals. By considering the key findings from the review, a comprehensive career relevance study can be designed and developed to support the growth of drone sports as a viable career option. This study would focus on critical skills and knowledge, including STEM education, technical proficiency, and athlete development programs. The insights gained from this article can identify and support the next generation of drone sports athletes and professionals, contributing to the growth and success of this emerging field. The ongoing study in this area has the potential to shape the development of a sustainable career path for drone sports professionals, contributing to the continued growth and popularity of this exciting field.

Keywords: STEM Education; Drone Sport; Career Development; Athlete Development
135 – 142
16. Students’ Acceptance of Drones Using the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice (KAP) Model
Siti Noranis’s Mohd Yunus & Umawathy Techanamurthy Abstract

Currently, drones are used for commercial, public safety, recreational, and scientific research purposes. Both short-term and long-term projections indicate the extensive adoption of drones in numerous industries. However, it is uncertain whether future generations will tolerate this high potential for drone congestion. This quantitative survey study investigated students’ approval of drones by employing the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practise (KAP) model and reducing uncertainty with statistical analysis. A recent survey utilised the KAP model to determine the public’s perception of drones. This survey instrument was completely redesigned to better comprehend students’ knowledge, attitudes, and risk perceptions regarding forty distinct drone applications. The practise section was also redesigned to better comprehend how students use drones on a personal and academic level. The results indicated that drones are currently approved. Commercial and recreational uses are not permitted. Students view drones as a potentially dangerous technology that directly invades their privacy. Furthermore, students are unaware of the majority of prospective and current drone applications. The survey was disseminated to college and high school students to represent the younger generation of the population (113 completed surveys). Additionally, students must be informed about these strategies via the media and educational institutions. This may assist in transforming the perception of drones from destroying machines and privacy invaders to a technology beneficial to society.

Keywords: Drones; Knowledge; Attitudes; Practice; Perceptions
143 – 159
17. The Integration of Industry Case-Based-Environmental Sustainability with Heutagogy Approach in Evaluating the Thinking Skills Among Technical Students
Haryanti Mohd Affandi* & Norazlinda Mohamad Abstract

This study evaluated the efficacy of an innovative teaching method framework, which incorporated heutagogical techniques and industrial case-based learning, in boosting the critical thinking abilities of vocational students. Using a pre-and post-test experimental design, 120 students from three Malaysian vocational colleges were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group participated in a three-day environmental sustainability and heutagogy-based educational camp. Pre- and post-test performance was graded using a validated rubric that evaluated analytical, creative, and practical thinking skills. Controlling for pre-test performance, Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) demonstrated a substantial influence of the heutagogical method on the post-test scores of the students. These findings demonstrate the potential for creative, hands-on teaching techniques, such as heutagogy coupled with industry case-based learning, to improve students’ critical thinking abilities. For even more outstanding results, future studies should examine complex, personalised teaching tactics that consider pupils’ various learning styles. This study highlights the significance of industryrelevant and learner-centred teaching approaches, especially in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET).

Keywords: Industry case-based, heutagogy, technical education, environmental sustainability, thinking skills
161 – 165
18. Pencirian Isyarat Data Muzik Yang Terhasil Dari Alat Muzik Tradisional Menggunakan Ciri Fraktal
Characterization of Musical Data Signals Resulting from Traditional Musical Instruments Using Fractal Features
Loh Guan Yan, Nuryazmin Ahmat Zainuri* & Mohd Zaki Nuawi Abstract

Musical instruments are usually distinguished by their sound produced through human perception which may lead to misinterpretation due to auditory perception bias and other disturbances. Therefore, recognition using music signals is carried out to help characterize signals from different musical instruments. Fractal analysis is a mathematical tool used to study complex and irregular patterns in various systems. In this study, fractal analysis was used to study and analyze musical notes signal data from different instruments. The fractal analysis method used is the box counting method. The traditional musical instruments involved in this study are the seruling, cak lempong, kompang, and gambus. Matlab software was used to analyze the musical data signal. First, the fractal dimension of the music data signal in the form of time domain is calculated. Then, the mean and standard deviation of the fractal dimension values were determined to recognize different musical instruments. Additionally, different image resolutions and box sizes are also used to calculate the fractal dimension of musical instrument from the time domain data. The error of best fit line, E will also be calculated to ensure the reliability of box counting dimensions using leastsquares regression method. The results show that the value of the fractal dimension for all 18 data is between 1.2636 to 1.7543. In terms of musical instrument recognition, the recognition of seruling and kompang using mean fractal dimension is successful. However, this method is less suitable for identification for cak lempong and gambus due to the high standard deviation. By using different image resolutions and box sizes, the accuracy of fractal dimension values will be affected. Increasing these parameters increases the accuracy of the results. The results of the study show that an image with a resolution of 1024 x 1024 pixels and a scaling factor of 9 is suitable to analyze the fractal characteristics of musical instrument data signals by using the box counting method.

Keywords: Traditional Musical Instruments; Data Signals; Fractal Analysis; Box Counting Method
167 – 178
19. Model Prototype of a Solar Tracking System Supplying Electrical Power for Sensors Used in a Natural Disaster Monitoring System
Z.A. Ghani, N. Aliyah Zainal Abidin & H. Othman Abstract

Sun is the universe main source of energy. This energy can be converted to useful electrical energy by the utilization of solar panels or photovoltaic (PV) during the daytime with the presence of suitable sun irradiation level. It is important that during the energy conversion process, suitable methods are employed to extract as much energy as possible from the PV panels. Some issues affecting PV performance are the accuracy of the panel’s orientation and tilt angle with respect to the sun position. This causes PV to operate with lower efficiency, thus generating low output power compared to its rated capacity. One of the approaches to this issue is to constantly maintain a perpendicular profile of PV panels towards the sun direction as to capture the sun energy as much as possible, thus increases the PV efficiency. To do so, the conversion system needs a tracking mechanism to help the solar panel to constantly follow the sun’s direction, enhancing the achievement of higher PV efficiency. For this reason, a model prototype has been designed and developed which consists of a dual-axis solar tracking system, with two axis movement direction from east to west and north to south by utilizing the Light Dependent Resistors (LDRs) sensors. This tracking system is developed using Arduino UNO as the microcontroller that allows the PV panel to move optimally towards the high intensity of sunlight via four LDRs and two servo motors. To analyze the PV tracker’s performance, a monitoring system is implemented using ThingSpeak platform as the Internet of Things (IoT) platform interfacing with the controller Node MCU ESP8266. This monitoring system records the data of the PV energy parameters from the sensors’ output employed in this prototype. To assess the system efficacy, the dual-axis tracking system is compared with the single-axis tracking system. The result showed that the dual-axis tracker has efficiencies of 68.46% which is higher compared to that’s of the single-axis tracker. Implementation of the real-time monitoring system has shown a practical and handy way to analyze and monitor the solar tracking system’s performance.

Keywords: Renewable energy, LDR, Arduino UNO, IoT, Node MCU ESP8266, monitoring system
179 – 188
20. Second-Order Accuracy in Time of Finite Difference Methods for Computational Aeroacoustics
Noorhelyna Razali*, Hasan Kadhim Jawad, Nuryazmin Ahmat Zainuri, Izamarlina Ashaari, Haliza Othman & Annie Gorgey Abstract

The recently developed second-order accuracy in time finite difference method suitable for computational aeroacoustics (CAA) is introduced. Although, it is straight forward to compute the coefficients for finite-difference method of any order of accuracy using the Taylor series and to then further optimize them to enhance their wavenumber preserving properties, there are difficult questions concerning their numerical stability The goal of this work is to develop an effective numerical technique that includes both linear and nonlinear wave propagation in order to solve acoustics problems in time and space. It also aims to evaluate the accuracy, effectiveness, and stability of the new technique. In 1-D linear and nonlinear computational aeroacoustics, the novel techniques were used. The findings of the conventional methods (square wave (FTCS) technique and step wave lax approach) are presented in this paper, and it is shown that the FTCS method is typically unstable for hyperbolic situations and cannot be employed. Unfortunately, the FTCS equation has very little practical application. It is an unstable method, which can be used only (if at all) to study waves for a short fraction of one oscillation period. Nonlinear instability and shock formation are thus somewhat controlled by numerical viscosity such as that discussed in connection with Lax method equation. The second-order accuracy in time finite difference method is more efficient than the (square wave (FTCS), step wave lax) methods and is faster than the step wave lax method.

Keywords: Numerical Method; finite difference; lax method; Leapfrog; Stability
189 – 200
21. Determination of Stopping Distance for Low CC Motorcycles with Antilock Braking
Afiqah Omar*, Fauziana Lamin, Zarir Hafiz Zulkipli & Azhar Hamzah Abstract

Motorcycles are among the favorite transportation preferred by Malaysians. Almost half of the vehicles registered in Malaysia are motorcycles. This is due to the price affordability and size, where almost 80% of the motorcycles owned are categorized under engine capacity below 250 cc. Similar to other Southeast Asia countries, motorcyclists remain the highest contributor to road traffic fatalities and injuries in Malaysia. The New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), has elevated the importance of safety technology in passenger cars such as antilock braking system (ABS) and autonomous emergency braking (AEB) in order to protect the occupants. However, the limitation of space and power requirements in two-wheel motorcycles deferred the technology implementation. Previous studies have attempted to study the effectiveness of ABS for motorcycles with 250 cc and above. Focusing on the low cc motorcycle of less than 250 cc, this paper compares motorcycle braking distance and rider stability between motorcycles with ABS and motorcycles without ABS during dry and wet conditions. The braking distance produced by ABS is reduced by 50% and 12% in dry and wet conditions respectively. In addition, motorcycles with ABS were tested at higher speeds of 50 km/h. ABS motorcycles shows consistent data for a series of tests. This finding demonstrates the effectiveness of ABS in improving braking performance for low cc motorcycles.

Keywords: Antilock brake system (ABS); Stopping distance; Two-wheelers; Braking performance; Active safety
201 – 209
22. Effects of Vehicle Age on Fuel Economy for Urban Driving Cycles
Fauziana Lamin*, Afiqah Omar, Noor Kamaliah Alias, Azhar Hamzah, Syaiful Bahri Ismail, Md Razif Md Berhannudin, Mohd Redza Bin Abdul Razak & Miminorazeahsuhaila Loman Abstract

Optimal service life is among the most crucial determinant factors in vehicle life-cycle planning and management. A multi-dimensional operational cost covering asset acquisition, operating, and maintenance until disposal requires a strategic analysis to ensure economic vehicle ownership. The economic service life issue is more prominent for transportation management with a high number of vehicle ownership capacity. Accordingly, twoyear fuel consumption data of a local authority passenger vehicle fleet that is mainly used for urban driving cycles was retrieved. Taking advantage of the actual fuel consumption data, this study explores the effect of vehicle age on fuel economy. Based on the fuel consumption and odometer reading, the average fuel consumption profile reveals a significant decrease following the addition of passenger vehicle age. In particular, vans showed a negative gradient in fuel consumption per year of -0.8 L/year, the highest decrement rate as compared to cars, 0.5 L/year and SUVs, -0.19 L/year. In terms of fuel economy, a comparatively low performance was recorded by cars, which is 9.38 km/L, as compared to SUVs, 27.05 km/L. Nevertheless, the fuel economy degradation for SUVs is 35% higher compared to cars. This result confirms the hypothesis that the longer the vehicle ages, the lower its fuel economy. Interestingly, this study suggests seven years as the start of a decline in the passenger vehicle fuel economy, independent of vehicle type. This research framework could be replicated to a bigger data scale for the economic vehicle service life determination in Malaysia that currently continues to be voluntary. It is vital as part of the basis for the future establishment of the national ELV definition.

Keywords: End-of-life vehicles; Fuel consumption; Fuel economy; Ownership period; Vehicle age.
211 – 217
23. Analytical Formulation for Optimisation of Torque Density in Magnetic Gears
Nuraqilah Nasuha Salimin*, Sallehuddin Mohamed Haris & Mohd Hanif Md Saad Abstract

Energy efficiency is a very important consideration in vehicle design today. Minimizing weight would go a long way in this direction, as it directly contributes up to 75% of fuel consumption. Mechanical gearboxes and transmissions are components that add significantly to vehicle weight. For example, the mass of typical automotive transmissions ranges from 40 to 200 kg, depending on the size of the vehicle. In recent years, magnetic gears (MG) have gained attention as realistic alternatives to mechanical gears. MGs operate without contact, where torque amplification, reduction, and transmission are achieved through the interaction of magnetic fields, which allows for lighter designs. For practical use in automotive vehicles, MGs must be capable of transferring sufficient amounts of torque. To maintain being compact and lightweight, the torque density of the MG must be maximized. Hence, the MG needs to be designed in such a way so as to achieve high flux concentration. Torque density analysis of MGs is not trivial, and often, some trade-offs between accuracy and computational cost is required. Several methods of analysis have been used by various researchers, including Finite Element Analysis, Reluctance Network Analysis (RNA), the Quasi 3D Analytical Method, and Genetic Algorithms (GA). In this work, we examine these methods and present an analytical formulation that relates MG torque to its physical parameters. Understanding such relationships could help optimise future MG designs such that torque density can be maximised.

Keywords: Magnetic gear (MG); Analytical method; Torque density; MG performance; Design optimization.
219 – 228
24. Recent Recycling Procedures for End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV) Metals in Malaysia
Muhammad Khairulamirin Zamri*, Nizaroyani Saibani, Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman, Norngainy Mohd Tawil, Siti Maisarah Mohd Pisal, Rosni Tarmidi & Hawa Hishamuddin Abstract

In Malaysia, a large number of abandoned End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV) problems pose a concern due to a lack of adequate regulation and action, while in Japan, a recycling system has been built and legislation controlling ELV recycling has been approved. The purpose of this article was to identify and investigate the current ELV recycling procedures in Malaysia, with a focus on metal recovery. This research also attempted to identify and review the ELV metal recycling procedures in Japan, as well as to compare and contrast them with Malaysian practices. A case study was conducted to investigate the ELV metal recycling procedure used by recyclers in Malaysia, thereby producing an ELV recycling framework. Publications on ELV metal recycling from Malaysia, and Japan will assist in determining, by identifying the ELV metal recycling technique used, the disparity between these two countries. Japan’s ELV recycling has long been recognized for its importance in secondary metal recovery and reducing ELV waste to the environment. The recovery of secondary resources, such as ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, and precious metals, from the recycling of ELVs reduces reliance on primary resources. It has been proven that ELV recycling aids in the prevention and control of ELV development around the world.

Keywords: End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV); ELV Recycling; Metals Recycling Procedures
229 – 237
25. Ignition Stability of Hydrogen in Noble Gases Atmosphere in Compression Ignition Engine
Norhidayah Mat Taib, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood, Hasan Koten & Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor Abstract

Hydrogen fuel promises a high engine efficiency and the ability to eliminate harmful emissions in an internal combustion engine. However, the ignition stability of hydrogen in compression ignition engine is unstable due to the high-auto ignition temperature of hydrogen. Noble gases such as argon, krypton and xenon have a larger molecular weight compared to nitrogen. Therefore, replacing nitrogen with noble gases appears to be a promising option due to their high specific heat ratio. This paper aims to investigate the ignition stability in a heavy molecular noble gases atmosphere in a CI engine. In this study, Converge CFD software simulates a singlecylinder compression ignition engine model based on the Yanmar NF19SK engine parameters. Hydrogen combustion in a noble gas atmosphere resulted in low ignition stability when operated at low intake temperature. Based on this study, we found that increasing intake temperature improves the ignition stability. As a result, argon is the most preferable among other noble gases. Nevertheless, future research should investigate the other noble gases’ capability under different parameters to improve the engine’s thermal efficiency.

Keywords: Ignitability; Combustion characteristics; Combustion stability
239 – 247
26. Evaluating the Potential of Additive Manufacturing in Repair for Remanufacturing Using AHP Method: Case Study of Automotive Brake Caliper
Iva Song Ci Way, Nurhasyimah Abd Aziz*, Nurfadzylah Awang & Dzuraidah Abd Wahab Abstract

In line with technological advancements in the era of IR 4.0, it is crucial for remanufacturing process to shift towards the more sustainable automated process. One of the remanufacturing activities that is currently gaining significant interest is an additive repair process. The repair processes in remanufacturing are usually conducted conventionally which caused inherent defects on the used part due to the heat generation and residual stress exerted during the process. Therefore, additive repair processes through the metal additive manufacturing should be considered in remanufacturing which offers substantial benefits in terms of efficiency and environmental effects. However, the inclusion of additive repair is still at the infancy stage where thorough investigation is necessary to overcome the issues in the process. The raised issues include the printability, bonding behaviour between two metals and quality of the repaired part. It is important to ascertain the compatibility of the additive repair process with the certain type of defects. This study focuses on the evaluation of defects or failure in an automotive brake caliper component using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) decision-making method. The main objective is to consider both qualitative and quantitative aspects for selecting the suitable repair process by reflecting the potential defects as the criteria and sub-criteria. Three respondents were participated to provide the priority scores through paired comparisons for each criterion, sub-criterion, and alternative involved. The study found that the Directed Energy Deposition (DED) process is the primary choice of respondents with the potential to be considered as a repair process for additive manufacturing with the score of 0.65. Overall, an AHP method is able to evaluate subjective opinions to select the suitable repair process in remanufacturing application.

Keywords: Additive repair; Additive manufacturing; AHP; Brake caliper; Remanufacturing
249 – 256
27. Cleaner Power Generation: An In-depth Review of Life Cycle Assessment for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Hilmi Hisyam Naimin, Hawa Hishamuddin*, Ruhanita Maelah, Muhammed Ali Shaikh Abdul Kader Abdul Hameed, Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman & Amizawati Mohd Amir Abstract

Nowadays, there is a growing emphasis on creating alternative power generation methods to replace outdated technologies like coal-fired power and hydroelectric plants. One promising solution is the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), which offers high energy efficiency, low carbon emissions, and cost-effectiveness. This study presents a focused examination of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of SOFCs, with the objective of reducing dependence on nonrenewable energy sources. The review encompasses a review of published articles between years 2016 to 2023 and an analysis of research gaps in SOFCs’ environmental performance. A systematic literature review underpins this investigation, where several publication selection criteria were considered including plants that can produce hydrocarbon such as biogas and biomass, utilization of LCA software as a method of assessment and incorporation of the life cycle impact assessment in the articles. The results suggest that using SOFC powered by biogas as a stationary power generator is a viable option. This is supported by recent LCA studies demonstrating that SOFCs using biogas have a reduced impact on climate change compared to other fuels. Implementing SOFCs holds great potential for a cleaner energy future, aligning with society’s goals for sustainable power production. For a more precise comparison of results, future LCA studies should adopt a multi-criteria environmental impact analysis using a consistent functional unit across different SOFC operations.

Keywords: Solid Oxide fuel cell (SOFC), Life Cycle Assessment, environmental impact
257 – 267
Phone : +603-8921 6117 | Email :