Jurnal Kejuruteraan

 Journal of Engineering

Volume 35(02) 2023

Table of Contents

Front Page

No. Article Page  
1. Rekabentuk dan Prestasi Antena MEMS Penuai Tenaga Mikro Frekuensi Radio Bagi Peranti Elektronik Berkuasa Rendah
Design and Performance of Radio Frequency Micro Energy Harvesting MEMS Antenna for Low Power Electronic Devices

Jahariah Sampe, Noor Hidayah Mohd Yunus, Jumril Yunas & Ahmad G. Ismail

Radio Frequency (RF) ambient energy has become the choice as a source of green energy for energy harvesting systems due to the existence of electromagnetic wave signals that are always present in the environment without incurring cost. This RF energy is very low usually less than 190 µW. However, the antenna needs to supply sufficient power to the RF energy harvesting system to power low-power electronic devices. Therefore, the antenna needs to be designed to capture and transfer energy to the RF micro energy harvesting circuit to supply optimal power to the electronic device. The micro-strip antenna design using Micro Electro Mechanical (MEMS) fabrication technology process is the most suitable choice because of its small size, light weight and high performance. This MEMS antenna design uses Computer Simulation TechnologyMicrowave-Studio software(CST-MWS). Comparisons were made for four types of antennas namely silicon surface micromachine, silicon bulk micro-machine with air cavity, glass surface micro-machine and RT/Duroid 5880 as reference. The simulation results show that the glass surface micro-machine antenna is the smallest in size compared to the other three antennas. The return loss of this antenna is also better which is increased by 55.1% and 5.6% compared to silicon surface micro-machine antennas and conventional RT/Duroid antennas respectively. The antenna also has a large bandwidth of 117 MHz, a gain of more than 5 dB and a direction of more than 5 dBi. The glass surface micro-machine antenna has been successfully fabricated using MEMS technology which produces a transparent antenna measuring (L/W) 19 mm x 19 mm. This small sized MEMS antenna is highly sensitive and highly effective for capturing ambient RF signals and is capable of supplying sufficient power to the RF energy harvester system.

Keywords : MEMS Antenna; RF Micro Energy Harvester; Design; Performance

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-01
2. A Review of Emergency Management Governance at Construction Sites in Malaysia

Khairilmizal Samsudin, Nurulilyana Sansuddin, Mohamad Fahmi Hussin, Ainul Husna Kamarudin, Maliki Hapani & Ahmad Faizol Hashim

The construction industry is one of the biggest industries in Malaysia which contribute to a significant growth towards the country’s economy. Accidents, disasters, or crisis events originating either from internal or external of the construction site can cause delays to the project and impact the continuity and productivity of the overall project, hence there is a need for emergency management capability to be available for each construction site. Hence, it is the objective of this research is to identify and review current emergency management governance in construction industries in Malaysia and indicate the compliance of the governance towards Malaysia’s disaster management environment. In understanding disaster governance of emergency management in Malaysia at the construction site and in the construction industry, a systematic procedure for reviewing and evaluating documents which include both printed and electronic materials was conducted. This study concentrates on both the content validity method and face validity method. Identify significant documents were studied and recorded to acknowledge the contribution and support that the document provides towards disaster management and validation of findings from subject matter experts in the industry. Findings indicate that there is still a huge gap in the construction industry emergency management and governance in emergency management is greatly needed in ensuring the high productivity and sustainability of the construction industry.

Keywords: Construction; Emergency Management; Disaster; MNSC20

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-02
3. A Systematic Literature Review on Vision-Based Hand Gesture for Sign Language Translation

Rina Tasia Johari, Rizauddin Ramli, Zuliani Zulkoffli & Nizaroyani Saibani

Deaf and hard of hearing people use sign language to communicate. People around mute and deaf people have difficulty communicating with each other if they do not understand sign language. This problem has prompted many researchers to conduct studies on sign language translation. However, there is a lack of compilation of SLR on this topic. Therefore, this paper aims to provide a thorough literature review of previous studies on sign language to text translation based on the vision method. PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items to writing a standard Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) is used in this systematic review. Two primary databases, Web of Science and Scopus, have been used to search for relevant articles and resources included in this systematic literature review. Based on the outcome of the systematic review of the topic, the primary studies on sign language translation systems were conducted using self-generated datasets more than public datasets. More static action sign language was studied compared to dynamic action sign language. For the type of recognition, more alphabet sign language was studied compared to digit, word, or sentence sign language. Other than that, most studies used digital cameras rather than Microsoft Kinect or a webcam. The most used classification method was Convolution Neural Network (CNN). The study is intended to guide readers and researchers for future research and knowledge enhancement in the field of sign language recognition.

Keywords: Systematic review; hand gesture; vision-based; machine learning; computer vision

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-03
4. Air Pollution Prediction Based on Changes in Monsoon Wind Direction by Using Trajectory-Geospatial Approach

Nor Diana Abdul Halim, Khairul Nizam Abdul Maulud, Kelvin Ching Hwa Lun, Wan Shafrina Wan Mohd Jaafar, Fazly Amri Mohd & Firoz Khan

Industrial areas are typically associated with hazardous levels of air pollution to human health and the environment. The growing number of factories in the area poses an ever-greater threat to the surrounding communities. One of the several incidents pointing to poor air quality in the industrial region is the severe air pollution incident that occurred in Pasir Gudang in June 2019 which brought adverse health impacts to nearby schoolchildren. This study intended to ascertain the role of meteorological factors and impacts on the dispersion of air pollution in the Pasir Gudang Industrial Area at the time of the occurrence. The air pollution distribution patterns were predicted using a trajectory-geospatial method, the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and Geographic Information System to account for the impact of the monsoon by determining which areas might be hit the worst as the shifted of monsoon seasons. Based on the results, the forward-air mass trajectories showed direct influence by the wind changes in monsoon seasons (Southwest Monsoon, Northeast Monsoon, and Inter-Monsoon). The geospatial maps showed the potential areas affected by the air pollution incident were highly distributed within 1 km, associated with lower dispersion of air pollution at 1000m above ground level height. The findings can serve as a guideline for local authorities in decision-making to develop better standard operating procedure in managing future air pollution threats and to improve industrial location planning in reducing air pollution impacts on the surrounding area.

Keywords: Air pollution; monsoon; forward-trajectory; HYSPLIT; geospatial

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-04
5. A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Dry and Wet Anaerobic Digestion Technologies for Food Waste Management

Rozieana Abu, Muhammad Arif Ab Aziz, Che Hafizan Che Hassan, Zainura Zainon Noor & Rohaya Abd Jalil

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is especially useful in the treatment of organic waste sources, such as food waste (FW) since AD can support the generation of clean energy while preventing the hazards of uncontrolled GHG pollution originating from landfills. However, the potential environmental impacts of dry AD and integrated wet AD treatment are largely unknown, particularly in Malaysia. Thus, this study aimed to compare the potential environmental impacts of four FW treatment technologies in Malaysia: landfill (Sc0), dry anaerobic digestion (Sc1), wet anaerobic digestion combined with windrow composting (Sc2), and wet anaerobic digestion combined with windrow composting and landfill (Sc3). The scenario modelling was performed via GaBi v6.0 software using 1 ton of pre-treated FW as a functional unit, with the analysis of environmental impact scores being based on the ReCiPe (H) v1.07 characterization method. At the midpoint assessment, the Sc1 produced extensive improvements in 12 mid-point impact categories, being the most environmentally favoured FW treatment method compared to the other options in critical categories such as global warming, depletion of fossils and agricultural land occupation. The Sc1 mesophilic conducting reactor in this study used less energy for heating, without generating waste water while requiring a small operating area. Sc3 had the lowest environmental performance since the emissions into the air from windrow composting and landfill were discharged completely without any form of treatment like capturing or flaring. Finally, through the single score analysis, Sc1 was regarded as an appropriate FW treatment technology with the least damaging impact on resource depletion, human health, and ecosystems in comparison to all scenarios. This was accomplished through relatively low power demands for the operation, shorter road transport distances, and a substantial reduction in the amount of waste and electricity generation. These analyses provide a useful framework for understanding the important characteristics of anaerobic treatment despite the divergent challenges faced by the different processes.

Keywords: Food waste; environmental management; anaerobic digestion, life cycle assessment; global warming

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-05
6. Pembangunan Kerangka Pelaksanaan Prinsip Rekabentuk Untuk Pembuatan Dan Pemasangan Ke Arah Pembinaan Secara Digital dan Mampan di Malaysia
Development of Application Framework for Design for Manufacturing and Assembly Towards Digital and Sustainable Construction in Malaysia

Mohammed Izrai Abd Razak, Muhamad Azry Khoiry, Wan Hamidon Wan Badaruzzaman, Afifuddin Husairi Hussain & Maria Zura Mohd Zain

Industrialized building systems (IBS) have long been applied in Malaysia to increase construction productivity and reduced the dependency on unskilled foreign labourers. However, projects using IBS still face issues related to time and cost overrun, poor quality, and the dependence on unskilled foreign labours. This is mainly caused by less collaboration and low adoption of technology in project implementation. To enhance the performance of the construction industry, design for manufacturing and assembly (DfMA) principles were introduced. To add value to the DfMA principles, it is paired with the building information system (BIM) which would help in creating a sustainable digital environment in the construction industry. The main objective of this study is to look at the readiness of Malaysia’s construction industry to adopt the DfMA principles and develop a framework for it. This study builds a solid base from data collected from literature reviews. It is then progressed by interviewing several subject matter experts covering the perspectives of policymakers, developers, and IBS manufacturers. Based on thematic analysis, factors of people, processes, organization, and environment are identified. From these factors, a framework to adopt DfMA was formed. This study would assist the stakeholder in better understanding the DfMA principles and what is required to adopt them to exploit their potential to produce a sustainable construction in line with government policies on construction 4.0 and achieving the sustainable development goals. Based on this study, a better plan and strategy could be produced for a more competitive construction industry.

Keywords: DfMA; IBS; Project management; Digital construction; Construction 4.0

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-06
7. Structure-preserving Contrast Enhancement of Fundus Images using Dualistic Sub-Image Bi-histogram Bezier Curve

Kelvin Chia Hiik Ling, Tan Tian Swee, Yan Chai Hum, Wan Hazabbah Wan Hitam, Muhammad Amir As’ari, Abdul Asnida Wahab, Jia Hou Tan, Kah Meng Leong, Joyce Sin Yin Sia, Matthias Foh Thye Tiong, Sameen Ahmed Malik, Sinan S. Mohammed Sheet & Roy Eduardo Aquilar Leon

Diabetic retinopathy is a common eye disease among diabetic patients which is caused by excessive sugar in the blood vessels that damage the retina. Fundus images are retina images that are captured and diagnosed by ophthalmologists. Ophthalmologists diagnose the progressive stages of diabetic retinopathy so that early detection of pre-diabetic retinopathy can be carried out. However, the quality of the fundus image can be associated with the brightness of the background and the indistinctive vessel contrast. This paper presents a novel extension of Bi-histogram Bezier curve contrast enhancement (BBCCE) based on the mean partition of its histogram. The disadvantage of having mean as the threshold partition is that the histogram distribution can be skewed due to an outlier. The proposed Dualistic Sub-Image Bi-histogram Bezier Curve Contrast Enhancement (DSI-BBCCE) method partitions the original histogram into two, using the median of the active dynamic intensity range of the input image and process two Bezier transform curves separately to replace the original cumulative density function curve as the median is not affected by the outlier. This DSI-BBCCE has the advantage of preserving the structure, median brightness and preventing over enhancement. The result shows that DSI-BBCCE has achieved a power signal to noise ratio (PSNR) of 20.08±0.94 dB, absolute mean brightness error (AMBE) of 20.15±1.89, structural similarity index model (SSIM) of 0.8096±0.0185, structure measure operator (SMO) of 3.2±1.10 and lightness measure order (LMO) of 200.90±44.19.

Keywords: SOFC; SDC; sintering temperature; sintering aid; electrolyte

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-07
8. User Requirements and Quality Assessment on Shoe Size and Fit Recommendation

Afiqah Shuhada Abu Hasan Asari, Norzehan Sakamat, Mohd Firdauz bin Mohd Fathir, Nurulhuda Noordin & Anitawati Mohd Lokman

Online shoppers often have to find reference conversion by manual method, standalone systems, asking sales agents, and browsing the internet. However, these methods that did not provide fast and seamless information on size and fit, and what more by different brands. This study was conducted to identify user requirements for shoe sizing and fitting based on standard size conversion (US, UK, Euro), brand and type. A survey (n=62) was conducted with online shoppers to determine functional and non-functional requirements for the shoe size and fit recommendation mobile application. Subsequently, a mobile application was developed based on the output, followed by 15 user satisfaction tests (n=50) to assess its quality using 9 task scenarios. An interview was then conducted to obtain richer user feedback. The analysis showed more than 90% of users evaluated the application as easy to use, had a pleasant interface, had the intention of using it, would recommend it to others, and were satisfied with the overall application. The mean analysis showed a score of 4.6, which indicates that most of the participants were satisfied with the application. The interview results suggested the application to add brand recommendations and customize features for children’s shoes. These open opportunities for future work to improve the acceptance and quality of the application. Users who wish to buy shoes online could benefit from the application by finding the right fit based on foot size, shoe brand and type easily using their smartphone.

Keywords : Shoe size; shoe fit; User Experience (UX); user satisfaction

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-08
9. Cost-Effective Solution to Water Scarcity in Dryland Environments using Sand Dam

Charles Ezugwu, Okechukwu Omunakwe, Kelechi Onyekweredike, Anthony Moluno, Chisom Ezugwu, Innocent Wokoma, Paul Akpan, Solomon Anyaeche & Amodu Oloyede

Drylands are homes to many peoples of the world where frequent severe droughts are experienced, and dwellers suffering severe water shortages. Water scarcity in these environments is at alarming rate but can be alleviated by building rainwater collecting structures using sand dams. These mitigation measures are built across ephemeral sand rivers and used to store and provide clean water in these environments. The procedure for this work involves presentation of the principles and functionality of sand dams, sand dam technology, the sedimentation process, financing and future plans. The application of sand dam technology provides water solution in these communities without interruption even during periods of droughts. The challenge is that most communities with potentials for sand dams lack the resources to implement it. It is recommended that self-help group (SHG) committees be formed in these areas to relieve these people of acute water stress. Structure for monitoring and maintenance of the facility should be packaged for optimal performance and sustainability. Before use, the water should be examined, and treated where pollutants are above tolerable levels. The main finding is that some places with sand dam potentials do not have them, either due to lack of awareness or resources. A comprehensive source of funding sand dam projects, a major contribution of this work is novel, being not found in related literatures. Future plan is to work on improving the technology and incorporating waste management in the system for a sustainable environment.

Keywords: Aquifer, Cost-effectiveness; Drylands; Sand dams; Sustainability; Water stress; Financing

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-09
10. Biochemical Treatment of Poultry Manure and Buffalo Dung to Enhance Methane Generation Using Lab-Scale An-Aerobic Digester: Effect of Mesophillic Condition on Methane Generation

Arshad Iqbal Jarwar, Shaheen Aziz, Muhammad Azam Usto, Rasool Bux Mahar, Khadija Qureshi, Imran Nazir Unar, Rizwan Khan, Abdul SattarJatoi, Shaukat Mazari, Abdul Karim Shah, Rashid Abro, Zubair Hashmi, Atta Muhammad, Abdul Qadeer Laghari, Zulfiqar Ali Bhatti & Zulfiqar Solangi

Poultry industry is one of the important growing poultry Industry of Pakistan, the pollution produced due to this causing serious environmental threats such as aquatic life disturbance, air, water and land pollution, pathogen contamination, bad odor, soil contamination and ammonia evaporation. This research study deals with utilization of poultry manure (PM) and buffalo dung (BD) for methane generation and enhance the generation through optimization of substrate mixing ratio and observe the effect of mesophillic condition on methane generation. The PM and BD were biochemically treated by anaerobic digestion. The mixing of P.M and B.D were carried out in ratio 3/1, 1/3 and 1/1 in 500 ml glass bottles acting as bio-reactor. The PM and BD alone were also used in different bioreactor. All the digesters have retention time of 65 days and operated at temperature of 37oC. Each digester distilled water and substrates were used in 1:1 ratio. All the digesters were operated by batch wise process. The generation of biogas from experimental work was maximum from 1:3 of P.M and B.D yield 561 Nml/gm.vs. The methane generation was also maximum in digester containing one part of P.M and three part of buffalo dung the methane generation was also maximum 66 %containing 32 % carbon dioxide. From this study we conclude that biochemical treatment of substrates mixed together in different ratios produces large quantity, quality, higher biodegradability and effective volatile solid removal from substrate.

Keywords: Biogas, Digester; Poultry manure; Buffalo Dung and co-digestion

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-10
11. Development of Amphibious Mobile Solar Power Generator with Ultra Water Filtration System for Disaster Relief

Muhamad Zahin Mohd Ashhar & Lim Chin Haw

During severe flood and natural disaster scenarios, electricity power becomes an essential and critical element to ensure the operation of medical services, equipment and communication systems as the power stations will most likely be shut down. Delivering power source and potable water to disaster areas becomes a major obstacle during severe flooding following the rise of water level causing road transportation becomes inaccessible. Therefore, an amphibian trailer equipped with a hybrid solar photovoltaic (PV) and an ultra-water filtration system is a good solution as it can be deployed or towed to the disaster areas by either a boat or a pickup truck. The amphibian trailer is equipped with a hybrid standalone solar PV system with battery storage and a generator set that can supply approximately 25 kWh of electric power per day. An ultra-water filtration system is also installed on the trailer, and it is powered by the hybrid solar PV system. Aluminium is used to construct the chassis of the trailer to ensure that the trailer is lightweight, strong, durable, and anti-corrosion. The wheeled trailer is integrated with a fiberglass floatable pontoon to allow it to operate on land and water. More importantly, the amphibious trailer can be relocated easily based on the situation and needs. This paper describes comprehensively the design and development process of the solar amphibious trailer.

Keywords: Amphibious, flooding, natural disaster, solar photovoltaic, water filtration

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-11
12. Welding Investigation on AA6063-T6 Aluminium Alloy during Friction Stir Welding Process

Aditya Mamgain, Ajay Pratap Singh & Vivek Singh

The Friction stir welding (FSW) is widely used to weld aluminium alloy for industrial applications such as shipbuilding, aerospace and automobile due to its lighter weight and high strength. The current work is carried out to examine the different process parameters to weld AA6063-T6 aluminum alloy with FSW process. The tool rotation speed, feed, plunging depth and dwell time are considered as the welding parameter. The three test coupons have been welded at three different rotational speeds. The tensile strength and hardness at the weld vary with the speed of rotation of the tool. The higher tensile strength is achieved at lower tool rotational speed. The tensile strength achieved at 1000rpm and 1400rpm is 191Mpa and 131rpm respectively. The higher strength is achieved due to the refinement of grains and recrystallization in stirred zone. The microstructure test confirms the presence of uniformly fine grains at weld area and equiaxed grains at HAZ region.

Keywords: AA 6063 T6; rotational speed; tensile strength; hardness; microstructure

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-12
13. Mengkaji Kesan Kekonduksian Pengenapan Politiofena / Polipirol /Polianilina (PT /PPY /PANI) di Atas Kaca Indium Timah Oksida (ITO)
Studying the Conductivity Effect of Polythiophene / Polypyrrole / Polyaniline (PT /PPY /PANI) Deposition on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Glass

Siti Amira Othman & Shahidan Radiman

The conducting polymer family is widely used in the field of polymer-based sensors. Among the polymers that are often used are polyaniline (PANI), polypyrrole (PPY) and polythiophene (PT). Sensors operate based on the production of signals by analyte molecules which then produce measurements either qualitatively or quantitatively. In addition, the use of conducting polymers in the field of biosensing has highlighted its importance, especially in the fields of biomedicine, environment, food quality control and more. Even so, there are issues that often arise such as controlling and producing signals of the materials used. Appropriate materials and methods also need to be studied. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the conductivity effect of the deposition of Polythiophene / Polypyrrole / Polyaniline (PPY/ PT/PANI) on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Glass. Polyaniline monolayer (PANI) was deposited on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) glass using the Langmuir Blodgett (LB) technique. The monolayer surface of PANI particles has been coated with a layer of polypyrrole (PPY) and polythiophene (PT). PPY and PT were dissolved in methanol and then added with p-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) to give the same effect as PANI, especially on their back chain structure. The UV-Vis and FTIR spectra prove the existence of peaks resulting from the solubility and doping process against PPY and PT. It was found that the uneven size of the polymer molecules results from the PPY / PANI image because there is a probability that the existing PPY clumps with each other. When PT was applied to the PPY / PANI layer, a combination of the three polymers formed a cavity on the surface of the PT / PPY / PANI layer. It was explained by the analysis of FTIR PT / PPY / PANI which exhibits the existence of bonds between the combined polymers. The material resistance decreases when the three polymers were combined which explains the higher conductivity value obtained.

Keywords: Polypyrrole; polythiophene; polyaniline; monolayer; langmuir blodgett

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-13
14. Shear Test Characterization of 3D Printed Polyamide Reinforced Carbon Fiber Composites

Nisa Naima Khalid, Fatin Zahidah Awang Adi, Nabilah Afiqah Mohd Radzuan & Abu Bakar Sulong

The issue of delamination occurring on PACF materials is a structural application failure due to poor mechanical strength. The bonding process of composite materials between layers using fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing affects the tensile strength of the material. The main objective of this study was to study the shear strength of polyamide reinforced carbon composite (PACF) materials by using shear test method and to study the effect of fractured or delamination surfaces during shear testing. In this study, PACF material was printed using FDM technique through Ultimate S3 machine. A total of 20 printed PACF specimens underwent a semi-overlapping adhesion process using Loctite E-20HP epoxy adhesive which required curing for 24 hours at room temperature. Shear test methods were performed on PACF composite specimens using Universal Testing Machine. Furthermore, PACF samples were conducted experiments to determine the physical properties of the composites of the material as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) experiments through fractured or eliminated surfaces. Based on the results obtained, the PACF material has a high shear tensile strength compared to that of epoxy adhesives with an average rate of 1.6 MPa respectively. This is may due to the low curing temperature and the thick epoxy layer. It was observed that the FDM printing method produces a porous print layer that can facilitate delamination to occur.

Keywords: Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM); PACF composite; Delamination; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-14
15. Estimation of Stress Concentration Factor for a plate with hole under Axial Tension Loading

Hiren Prajapati, Prachi Patel & M.Y. Patil

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of hole/holes on stress concentrations in a plate using a current industry standard software – Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Plate with hole/holes is a common engineering application such as in automobile, marine, aerospace and mechanical structures. Hole/Holes can be seen in many thin-walled mechanical and automobile structures and components. For example, hole/holes are found in residential/commercial buildings’ steel structural studs to allow plumbing installation, web or flange of steel box girders in bridges is furnished with holes to ease inspection works, electrical and heating conduits in the walls or ceilings and ribs attached to the main spar of an aeroplane’s wing are frequently come with holes. These hole/holes are one type of discontinuities within the structure (e.g. thin plate) that leads to changes in elastic stiffness and may tend to failures. Proper knowledge of stresses, strains, deflection and stress concentration (SC) are required to design any structures. In the geometry of the plate, under different loading, stress concentration rises from any abrupt change. And due to this, throughout the cross-section, the uniform stress distribution does not occur. At a point of stress concentration, as a results failures like fatigue cracking and plastic deformation commonly occur. Hence, it is very important in any engineering structural design to know about the stress concentration on plates with holes. In the present study stress concentration in a plate with a circular central hole and offset hole subjected to uniaxial loading (axial tension) is calculated using Finite Element of Analysis (FEA). Equations of SCF given by Peterson are dependent on three parameters namely, hole radius (a), distance from the bottom edge to the centre of hole (c) and distance from top edge to centre of hole (e). By varying either ‘c’ or ‘e’ or the ratio of ‘e/c’, an effort is made to study stress concentration factors for the determination of the edge effect by varying the hole to edge distance. The results show that von Mises stresses increased with increasing ‘e/c’ or ‘a/c’, which in turn increases SCF and finally leads to failure.

Keywords: Axial tension; finite element analysis (FEA); stress concentration (SC); stress concentration factor (SCF); equivalent (von Mises) stress, edge effect

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-15
16. Temperature and pH Control of Dark Fermentation Bioreactor to Produce Biohydrogen from Palm Oil Mill Effluent by Using Fuzzy Logic Controller

Ikhmal Zariq Al Imran Jamal Ikhsan, Norliza Abd Rahman & Jarinah Mohd Ali

Hydrogen is the main choice of renewable fuel since it brings significant benefits compared with the other conventional fuels, such as the use of waste substrate, cleaner and highest energy density. Biological hydrogen production route is cost efficient since it can be processed in ambient conditions, easy operational techniques while keeping the environment safe. Dark fermentation to produce bio-hydrogen has received widespread attention from researchers in the present decades especially due to not requires light sources. This work is a study of the optimization of process conditions particularly pH and temperature of a dark fermentation bioreactor to produce Bio-H2 from palm oil mill effluent (POME) by using fuzzy logic controller. The simulation started by developing process and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) of bioreactor. Then a conventional PID controller and fuzzy logic controller were simulated by using MATLAB SIMULINK and the results were compared with each other in terms of safety aspect. The temperature of 37oC and pH of 6 is the optimum conditions that needs to be maintained to yield the hydrogen at 2.79 mol H2
mol-1 glucose. The pH is able to reach optimum value at 600s and 30s by using the PID controller and fuzzy logic controller, respectively. Same goes to temperature control, where the parameter reaches optimum value at 200s and 0.3s respectively. Based on these promising results, fuzzy logic controller is a good replacement for the conventional control systems since it requires shorter time to optimize process conditions, consequently making sure the safety aspect is well guaranteed.

Keywords: Dark Fermentation, Bio-H2, POME, PID Controller, Fuzzy Logic Controller

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-16
17. Characterisation of Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate Modified Asphalt Cement with Nano Iron Oxide and Nano Silica Particles

Kurthan Korutürk & Mustafa Alas

The current study investigated the physical properties and rheological characteristics of asphalt cement (AC) modified by nano ironoxide (Fe3O4) and nano silica (SiO2) particles. Seven different blends including base AC, Acrylete-StyreneAcrylonitrile (ASA)/ Nanosilica (Si) and ASA/ Nanoironoxide (Fe) were the subject of experimental investigations. ASA was used at 5% for all modified blends while the nanomaterials were blended in 3, 5 and 7% concentrations by the weight of AC. Temperature susceptibility, rotational viscosity (RV) and storage stability for the base and polymer nanocomposite modified asphalt cement (PNCAC) were evaluated by the physical testing procedures while the frequency sweep test and the multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) tests were conducted using a dynamic shear rheometer. The results showed that, the viscoelastic properties of the ASA/Si and ASA/Fe modified binders were improved when subjected to a range of temperatures and loading conditions. ASA/Fe composite modified AC demonstrated superior high temperature performance characteristics while ASA/Si composite modified AC although presented less significant improvement at the high temperature conditions, it was also able to improve the intermediate temperature fatigue resistance of asphalt more than the ASA/Fe composite modified AC. The optimum concentration of additives were found to be 3 and 5% for the ASA/Fe and ASA/Si modified AC respectively. Further addition of nanomaterials beyond the abovementioned concentrations resulted in degradation of the enhancement in physical and rheological properties of PNCAC, which was associated to the occurrence of agglomeration of nanoparticles and phase separation between the polymer-nanomaterial-asphalt matrix.

Keywords: Polymer/nanocomposite; nano ironoxide; nano silica; dynamic shear rheometer; multiple stress creep recovery

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-17
18. IoT Based Monitoring System for Mobility Control of Dairy Cattle in Indonesia

Sofiyanti Indriasari, Yuni Resti, Arvy Adhitya Sutisna, Aditya Wicaksono & Dudi Firmansyah

Providing appropriate space for movement is one of the best ways needed to increase cows’ comfort in optimizing their productivity. Currently, several farms have made some changes to the housing system by implementing a free-stall housing system. The system makes the cows more comfortable to rest and do activities because they are not tied up. Due to the large number of cows that are kept, sometimes farmers find it difficult to detect the health condition of each cow individually. Hence, an early detection system is needed to control and monitor cattle activity. The study aimed to develop a monitoring system at the free stall barn farm based on the internet of things. The method used for the study adopted the steps in the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Microcontroller-based dairy cow mobility monitoring tool built with NodeMCU ESP8266, GPS sensor, 5v booster, 18650 battery and housing to protect all components. All components used cables with the provisions of the NodeMCU ESP8266 as the tool control centre, GPS sensor as a coordinate point reader, battery as a voltage source, and 5v voltage booster as a component that controls the tool and controls the power off or on. The tool works by getting a power source from the battery and then displaying all the components. The GPS antenna will search for satellites to determine the coordinates of the tool and the coordinate point information will be sent to the NodeMCU ESP8266. When the GPS antenna searches for coordinates, the NodeMCU ESP8266 will look for a WiFi connection in it to then be able to access the internet and send information from the GPS sensor to the hosting website.

Keywords: Cow monitoring system; IoT for dairy cattle; Mobility Control

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-18
19. Sustainable Cost Optimisation Measures for The Lifecycle of Tolled Highway Projects in Malaysia

Sukhadeva S.Sukumar, Abu Hanifah Yusof, Muhamad Iqbal Aslam Abd Hafiz, Muhamad Razuhanafi Mat Yazid, Mohd Azizul Ladin & Mukhlis Nahriri Bastam

The implementation and maintenance of highway infrastructure often requires significant capital throughout its life cycle which affects stakeholders including the government, developers, operators, users, etc. Furthermore, the sustainability aspect and existing toll systems in Malaysia are currently in the midst of being re-evaluated in order to attain a long-term gain that benefits both road users and relevant stakeholders. The objective of this study is to propose a Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) model for sustainable highway projects in Malaysia which considers certain cost optimisation measures throughout the stages of concept, design, construction, and operation & maintenance. The proposed LCCA model intends to act as a cost optimisation tool that provides sustainability recommendations for toll systems, highway alignments, pavement maintenance and rehabilitation, existing policies, contract and project type, material, equipment, time-cost factor, etc. Additionally, a relationship between the financial efficiency of toll systems and the affect it has on the overall cost of highway projects was established. The significance of cost pertaining to highway infrastructure components and the perception of toll systems was evaluated via a survey questionnaire; distributed to a select group of senior and principal engineers. The survey utilised a 5-point Likert scale which assisted in forming a regression analysis along with determining a correlation between toll systems and the overall cost of highway projects. Secondary data obtained from a reputable consultancy aided in understanding highway components that could potentially undergo further cost optimisation. Lastly, the sustainable and cost optimised LCCA model consists of recommendations and measures intended for a new age of sustainable highway projects in Malaysia.

Keywords: Life cycle cost analysis; cost optimisation; sustainability; toll systems

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-19
20. The Use of Social Media for Infrastructure Developer Company: Study of a New Revenue Stream

G Aji Sentosa, Eri Dwi Wibawa, Ines Wahyuniati Riza & Annisa Dewanti Putri

The culture of business construction, which currently focuses on winning new project tenders and revenue based on terms, is significantly affected when activity restrictions occur. What happened during the pandemic in 2019 noting that 25% of construction companies could not survive the pandemic. As a result, various innovations need to be deployed to save the business from bankruptcy, so that new revenue streams are needed outside of the ongoing business, one of which is the development of social media. Social media has an increasingly prominent role in impact interactions, and it has been proven that this sector does not experience a decline when almost all sectors are bad in the pandemic era. This research will examine how social media can have an impact on the construction industry, not only increasing participation and driving public opinion but can also be a new revenue stream for companies. This research will focus on companies engaged in toll road infrastructure developer in Indonesia. The case study was designed to combine both qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that the use of social media in infrastructure development businesses that focus on corporate branding can be developed into a new revenue stream with a content focus, namely project progress, educational shows, and the use of technology impact the influence and awareness.

Keywords: Construction; infrastructure developer company; revenue stream; social media

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-20
21. Compound Development of Fe80Cr20 Metallic Interconnect by Ball Milling and Ultrasonic Technique: Its Effect on Mass Gradation

Dafit Feriyanto, Supaat Zakaria, Hadi Pranoto, Dedik Romahadi & Imam Hidayat

The investigation of metallic material for interconnect fuel cell application was very challenging due to interconnect operate at high temperature up to 11000C. However, the main problem of metallic material is mass change at high temperature is inevitable. Therefore, this research aims to analyse the compound of Fe80Cr20 and it effect of mass gradation. The methods were conducted by ultrasonic technique (UT) by frequency of 35 kHz, various ultrasonic time of 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 5 h. Milling technique was conducted by milling time of 60 h with nitrogen gas condition. The analysis was conducted by Scanning Electron Microscope for compound investigation and Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) for mass gradation analysis. The result shows that there are several compounds that developed after ball milling and ultrasonic technique such as Fe80Cr20, FeO2 and Cr2O3. The UT samples shows the lowest mass gain of 31.917 mg is located at UT 4.5 h, while raw material has largest mass gain as compared to the other samples (treated samples). Meanwhile for milled and combination of milled and UT samples shows the lowest mass gain has observed at milled and UT 4.5 h with the value of 17.014 mg and 12.7 mg, respectively

Keywords: Interconnect; Fuel Cell; Mass Change; Compound; Metallic Material

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-21
22. Adaptive Reuse of Port Heritage Leads to Urban Waterfront Regeneration: A Proposed Case Study in Zhuzhou City, China

Ling Shen, Asmawan Mohd Sarman, Mohamad Ibrahim Bin Mohamad, Guo Min Wei & Mian Jiang

Improvements in transportation and logistics have forced many ports lost their functional status even abandoned in the recent globalization context. While these deteriorated port-related area could get revitalization when reusing the port heritage as a catalyst to rebuild the better connection to the city, just as the ideal redevelopment projects worldwide have revealed. They provide ways to identify and conserve the port heritage, especially set a research foundation to explore how to use them for urban economic, social-cultural and environmental sustainability. In this sense, three common perspectives towards adaptive reuse of the port heritage have been introduced, respectively representing as multi-functional creator, adhesive back to the city and environmental-friendly messenger, based on which, practical implementation can be directly performed despite the scale of the port area. Consequently, this approach selects a typical port heritage site (Yong Li dockyard) in Zhuzhou, which is just an average industrial port city in center China, to illustrate that the essential factors extracted from project icons will also work for proceedings with considering their own context. In addition, a visual adaptive reuse plan is proposed, aiming to trigger the urban waterfront regeneration by recreating the port heritage as new roles to increase economy, satisfy residents and improve environment. Additionally, this research might shed lights on other cities with potentials.

Keywords: Port heritage; adaptive reuse; waterfront; regeneration; landscape corridor; Zhuzhou

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-22
23. Application of Building Information Modelling (BIM) Six Dimension (6D) in Green Buildings: A Case Study of Sunshine and Daylight Analysis

Guomin Wei, Asmawan Mohd Sarman, Lillian Gungat, Minghe Li, Ling Shen & Goh Siew Fang

Although a considerable amount of research has been focused on how building information modeling (BIM) helps improve sustainable construction, BIM(6D) model validation and efficient data analysis methods are still lacking. This study aims to provide the more effective research method and analytical method. The Greenjiansville Sunshine analysis software Sun2020 and daylight analysis software Dali2020 were used for 6D modeling and simulation and real simulation of a building outside the daylight range and time. The daylight coefficients, outdoor visual field observation rate, and daylight quality were calculated for the rooms inside the building. The results show that single the daylight statistics and analysis color map can not accurately analyze whether the actual daylighting meets the demand, but combined with Power BI comprehensive analysis can get fast and accurate results. This paper provides important guidance for building researchers and practitioners to better align BIM development with green building development in the future.

Keywords: BIM 6D; Daylight Analysis; Green Building; Sunlight Analysis

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-23
24. Experimental Studies on the Removal of Textile Dye of Naphthol Green B from Artificially Contaminated Water Using Purolite MB400 Ion Exchange Resin

Monika Liugė & Dainius Paliulis

Experimental research was conducted in order to point out the issue of dye removal from textile wastewater. Dyes are among the most dangerous substances emitted into the environment from the textile industry. The aim of this study was to determine the adsorption efficiency of the removal of naphthol green B from artificially contaminated water using Purolite MB400 ion exchange resin. In experimental research was used 0.3-1.2 mm fraction of Purolite MB400. 6 samples were prepared for this analysis. The experiment of sorption was performed at the same pH level, which ranged from 6 to 7. In order to find out whether the changes of the pH values of the solution after the sorption process did not affect the sorption process itself, optical density measurements were performed at different pH values. pH values ranged from 6 to 8.5. The sorption process was performed for 1 hour. A calibration curve at 484 nm was generated before measurements using Photo colorimeter. The residual carbon content of the samples was determined using a carbon analyzer. After 60 min of the adsorption process, the adsorption efficiency of the dye ranged from 50.96 % to 98.30 %.

Keywords: Circular economy; naphthol green B; Purolite MB400; sorption

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-24
25. The Effect of Span-to-Height Aspect Ratio to The Damage Index Ratio of RC Buildings with Vertical Irregularity Setbacks

Taufiq Ilham Maulana, Muhammad Ibnu Syamsi, Fanny Monika & Hakas Prayuda

Many type irregularities exist in reinforced concrete frame buildings to accommodate the demand from architectural and aesthetic aspects. One of it is vertical irregularity setback. Its appearance affected the building seismic performance and the damage distribution. Previous researchers proposed equations to correlate between irregularity indices and damage index ratio of setback buildings. However, the aspect ratio between span and height were not included in the formula. This research presents the influence of span-to-height ratio to damage index ratio of the reinforced concrete buildings with setbacks. A set of 2D RC frames having setbacks are evaluated with nonlinear dynamic analyses under three seismic input motions. Several span-to-height aspect ratios were applied by changing the inter-story heights. The Park-Ang damage index was adopted to evaluate the damage index ratio between tower part and base part to represent the damage distribution and the inter-story drifts were observed to represent the building seismic performance. The result showed that under the same earthquake motions, the decrease in span-to-height ratio majorly increased the maximum inter-story drifts. The damage index ratio values between tower part and base part fluctuated, however the similar pattern of damage distributions between tower and base structure were obtained.

Keywords: Span-to-height ratio; setback buildings; damage index ratio; seismic performance analysis

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(2)-25