Jurnal Kejuruteraan

 Journal of Engineering

Volume 35(03) 2023

Table of Contents

Front Page

No. Article Page  
1. The Application of Theory of Planned Behaviour in Pedestrian Safety: A Literature Approach

Siti Khairunisa Zainal, Muhamad Nazri Borhan*, Muhamad Razuhanafi Mat Yazid & Ahmad Nazrul Hakimi Ibrahim

Road accidents among pedestrian become an important issue that needs to be mitigated due to high injuries and fatalities cases. Pedestrian is a weakest group of people compared to the drivers because they are not fully protected. The accidents involving pedestrian may occur due to their own negative crossing behaviour. This study is purposely to identify the effectiveness of theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in predicting pedestrian behaviour. TPB has three main constructs which are attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control that significant to behavioural intention. Some studies used extended TPB by adding other constructs such as moral norms, perceived risk, conformity tendency, perceived severity, and past behaviour to predict pedestrian behaviour more accurately. This study used a literature approach where some of the previous studies are examined and the results of the studies are being analysed using descriptive analysis. The results show that TPB is suitable to predict pedestrian behaviour because the constructs are significant and comply with its fit. This study also shows that pedestrian behaviours are differ according to their age and gender. Most of previous studied states that young people tends to perform risky behaviours compared to old people. Children pedestrian are more vulnerable and have a high tendency to involve in road accidents and have a high fatality risk. Men are more risk-taking compared to women and men have high tendency to violate road regulations and exposed to injuries and fatality while women have more positive crossing behaviour.

Keywords : Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB); pedestrian behavior; attitudes; subjective norms; perceived behavioral control; behavioral intention.

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-01
2. Review of 5G Wireless Cellular Network on Covid-19 Pandemic: Digital Healthcare & Challenges

Chia Chao Kang*, Yee Heng Teh, Jian Ding Tan, Mohammad Mahdi Ariannejad & Siti Balqis Samdin

Since the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) began in 2020, it has changed the way people live such as social life and healthcare. One of the simplest ways to avoid wide spread of the virus is to minimize physical contact and avoid going to a crowded place. Besides that, it also has prompted countries across the world to employ digital technologies such as wireless communication systems to combat this global crisis. Digital healthcare is one of the solutions that play a crucial role to support the healthcare sector in order to prevent and minimize physical contact through telehealth and telemedicine such as monitoring, diagnosis and patient care. 5G network has the potential to advance digital healthcare along with its key technology such as enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), Ultra Reliable and Low Latency Communication (URLLC), and massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC). Despite the benefits of digital healthcare by leveraging the 5G technology, there are still challenges to be overcome such as privacy protection issues, 5G deployment and limited connectivity. In this review, it highlights the relevance and challenges of 5G wireless cellular networks for digital healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also provides potential solutions and future research areas for researchers on 5G to reduce COVID-19 related health risks.

Keywords: 5G Network; COVID-19; Digital Healthcare; Contact Tracing

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-02
3. RO Reject Water Characteristics, Environmental Impacts and Management

Jyoti Vaishnav, Prama Esther Soloman, Chhagan Lal & Pankaj Kumar Jain

Supply of potable water to every citizen is the prime challenge to many countries. Water purification is done by so many methods but reverse osmosis (RO) process using membrane is extensively used throughout the world. This technology is widely applied to meet potable water quality standard. In this process ground or surface water is used as feed water and pure water and Reverse Osmosis Concentrate (ROC) are formed as product and by product respectively. ROC is discharged in this reverse osmosis process and it contains dissolved inorganic and organic pollutants. RO system permits the separation of water molecules and salts through a semi-permeable membrane by pressure gradient. In household, reverse osmosis unit uses a lot of water as a feed water due to low back pressure system, as a result recovery is less and a lot of water go as waste, which has no further use. RO process discharge water is almost 50% of feed water and it is one of the major drawbacks of this process. The concentration of contaminants in RO reject is influenced by the nature of feed water as well as the kind of membrane being used in RO system along with applied pressure and recovery rate of the system. RO brine is a significant component of desalination plant because there are management issues related to its proper treatment and disposal of the ROC is an important part of sustainable water treatment practice. RO waste water may have catastrophic consequences for water stressed regions and mega cities and it is the biggest task in present time. This review highlights the RO process and reverse osmosis concentrate or rejected water together with their physicochemical parameters, potential risk by using RO concentrate disposal methods and environmental benefits of reusing brine water which can resolve the problem of water scarcity. The study revealed that RO waste water disposal problem can be minimized by reclaiming the RO brine and using it for fish farming, irrigation, producing salt and in brick formation. Hence this manuscript proposes an environmentally friendly approach for sustainable management of RO brine water.

Keywords: Reverse Osmosis Concentrate (ROC); Environmental problems; Reverse Osmosis process; Brine water; Water purification techniques

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-03
4. Dynamic Insulation Systems to Control Airborne Transmission of Viruses in Classrooms: A Review of ‘Airhouse’ Concept

Mohd Firrdhaus Mohd-Sahabuddin*, Ammar Sadik Dahlan, Azli Mohamad Jamil & Firdaus Muhammad-Sukki

The discovery of the Covid-19 virus in China at the end of 2019 has drastically altered the global landscape. The virus, which has now become a pandemic, has wrought devastation on the world, infecting over 500 million people and killing over 6 million. The virus’s mutation into a few variations, however, has enabled the world’s alarming situation to continue until now. Airborne particles and viruses including the new Covid-19 variant – Omricon, is not only extremely contagious but also can be transferred by airborne transmission, putting vulnerable people like children at risk, particularly in classrooms. Amongst the strategies to control airborne transmission of viruses and to improve indoor thermal and air quality is using ventilation strategies – such as dynamic insulation. Thus, this paper will review at how dynamic insulation systems in conventional farming and residential buildings, cleanrooms and other controlled environments work to reduce airborne viruses and particles in a room. An innovative “Airhouse” concept that combines with activated carbon has been researched and investigated with regard to the dynamic insulation systems.This system has a high potential to reduce the air temperature, humidity, and airborne viruses including Covid-19 whilst maintaining a steady airflow rate in a normal room. Therefore, it has a great deal of potential to decrease or eliminate concerns about the transmission of airborne viruses and adapt ventilation systems to new pandemic threats.

Keywords: Airborne viruses; indoor air quality; dynamic insulation; classrooms; airhouse

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-04
5. A Review on Challenges in Telerehabilitation and Human Activity Recognition Approaches during Covid-19 Pandemic

Md. Mahmudur Rahman, Kok Beng Gan* & Noor Azah Aziz

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic is widespread imposing limitations on the healthcare services all over the world. Due to this pandemic, governments around the world have imposed restrictions that limit individual freedom and have enforced social distance to prevent the collapse of national health care systems. In such situation, to offer medical care and rehabilitation to the patients, Telerehabilitation (TR) is a promising way of delivering healthcare facilities remotely using telecommunication and internet. Technological advancement has played the vital role to establish this TR technology to remotely assess patient’s physical condition and act accordingly during this pandemic. Likewise, Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is a key part of the recovery process for a wide variety of conditions, such as stroke, arthritis, brain injury, musculoskeletal injuries, Parkinson’s disease, and others. Different approaches of human activity recognition can be utilized to monitor the health and activity levels of such a patient effectively and TR allows to do this remotely. Therefore, in situations where conventional care is inadequate, combination of telerehabilitation and HAR approaches can be an effective means of providing treatment and these opportunities have become patently apparent during the COVID-19 outbreak. However, this new era of technical progress has significant limitations, and in this paper, our main focus is on the challenges of telerehabilitation and the various human activity recognition approaches. This study will help researchers identify a good activity detection platform for a TR system during and after COVID-19, considering TR and HAR challenges.

Keywords: COVID-19; telerehabilitation; human activity recognition

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-05
6. The Role of IoT Technologies in Malaysia During the Covid-19 Pandemic: A MiniReview

Nur Amalina Muhamad, Fazlinashatul Suhaidah Zahid*, Norhalida Othman & Nor Diyana Md Sin

The Covid-19 global infection has significantly influenced people’s health, resulting in sudden changes in lifestyle through social exclusion and isolation. To break the transmission and terrifying health threat of Covid-19, the Malaysian Government imposed a Movement Control Order (MCO) starting March 18, 2020, by restricting movement and contact. The Covid-19 pandemic emphasized the importance of the digital inclusion agenda, and the application of Internet of Things (IoT) services has given tremendous benefits in various disciplines, as it helps maintain physical distance during the pandemic. Modern lifestyles are being transformed by the IoT revolution by embracing technological, economic, and social prospects. In fact, many sectors in Malaysia would be transformed through the application of IoT, particularly in productivity, and services. Thus, this review paper discusses IoT’s most recent breakthroughs and applications that are used in Malaysia during the Covid-19 crisis. Furthermore, it investigates current IoT implementation and discusses the potential impact of the pandemic on the application of IoT in terms of technology trends and economic impact. IoT is worth mentioning as one of the technologies demonstrating its importance and capabilities in mitigating the severity of the pandemic within the country. This article delves into the applications, social and economic impact, and barriers to the widespread adoption of IoT in the Covid-19 pandemic. This review paper will be useful to academic researchers, business professionals, organizations in various sectors, and anyone interested in determining IoT services’ impact on pandemics.

Keywords: IoT; Covid-19; Malaysia; Technology Trend; Economy Impact

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-06
7. Shear Strength Prediction of Treated Soft Clay with Sugarcane Bagasse Ash Using Artificial Intelligence Methods

Rufaizal Che Mamat* , Azuin Ramli & Sri Atmaja P. Rosyidi

Soil shear strength is an essential engineering characteristic used in designing and evaluating geotechnical structures. In this study, we intend to analyse and compare the performance of the Genetic Algorithm – Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (GANFIS) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in predicting the strength of soft clay. Case studies of 144 soft clay soil samples from Sarang Buaya, Semerah, Malaysia, were utilised to generate training and testing datasets for developing and validating models. RMSE and R have been employed to validate and compare the models. The GANFIS has the highest prediction capability (RMSE=0.042 and R=0.850), while the ANN has the lowest (RMSE=0.065 and R=0.49). From a comparison of the two models, it can be stated that GANFIS is the most promising technique for predicting the strength of soft clay.

Keywords: Shear strength; Soft clay; Sugarcane bagasse ash; Artificial neural networks; Adaptive network based fuzzy inference system; Genetic algorithm

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-07
8. An Investigation into the Behavior of Disposable Face Masks in Modified Bitumen for Sustainable Transportation Pathways

Syahirah Mansor*, Nur Amirah Mohd Zamri, Zanariah Abd Rahman, Rozaini Ramli & Ahmad Kamil Arshad

Since December 2019, COVID-19 infection rates have risen considerably, and the virus is currently widespread around the world. Following the COVID-19 outbreak, the production of medical waste has skyrocketed. Disposable face masks are considered medical waste. Alternative measures must be implemented to assist in reducing medical waste disposal, which can result in serious public health problems and have a negative influence on the environment. In this regard, this research was conducted to investigate the effect of disposable face mask (DFM) ash with varied rates ranging from 5% to 20% by weight on bitumen with a 5% increment to be utilised as an alternative material in asphalt pavement. A series of physical and rheological tests were conducted on the bitumen samples to study the behavior of the DFM ash in bituminous material. Overall, the physical and rheological test results revealed that introducing 20% DFM ash to the modified bitumen was unable to achieve the same properties as with the conventional SMA14 asphalt binder. However, the modified bitumen penetration grade PEN 60/70 has improved the properties and quality of the asphalt in the flexible pavement. In addition, utilising the DFM waste in road construction would be a sustainable technique for protecting the environment by minimising face mask waste caused by the COVID-19 epidemic while lowering the pavement’s construction cost. These research findings may be commercialised to generate revenue in the construction industry for sustainable transportation pathways.

Keywords : Disposable face mask; bituminous materials; physical properties; rheological properties

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-08
9. Influences of Lightweight Foam Concrete Roof Tile Hollow Sections and Thermal Reflective Coating in Cool Roof System

Ho Mun Ling*, Yew Ming Chian, Yew Ming Kun, Saw Lip Huat & Yeo Wei Hong

Modern civilization is increasing the commercial and residential buildings demand, while a big part of the energy consumed in buildings is for cooling purposes. Modern building design requires sustainable cooling facilities when an excellent roofing system plays an important role. This paper investigates the performance of a cool roofing system that integrates lightweight foam concrete roof tile and a passive cool roofing system. The concrete fabrication process introduced the concrete roof tile hollow sections to improve the roof’s thermal resistance. The densities of the lightweight foam concrete roof tile were varied at 1300 kg/m3 and 1100 kg/m3, respectively, to determine a better performance of roof tile than a basic concrete roof with a density of 2500 kg/m3. Two spotlight lamps that imitated solar irradiation in the afternoon were used as the heat supplied on four roof prototypes. The results showed that the attic temperature dropped from 40.8 °C to 33.5 °C (-7.3 °C) after 60 minutes of heat exposure when the roof was a foam concrete, the roof density was lower, with hollow longitude sections and thermal reflective coating. Furthermore, the average attic temperature increment rate was reduced by 70.2 % when an ideal cool roofing system was applied.

Keywords: Lightweight foam concrete; thermal reflective coating; cool roof; building

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-09
10. The Performance of Isolated Half-Scissor Like Elements Mechanism Under Compression Axial Load

Chai Teck Jung*, Tan Cher Siang & Koh Heng Boon

Half-Scissor Like Elements (H-SLEs) deployable mechanism is the prefab scissor based structural mechanism consists of two bars with bolted connection to enable structure change shape. An experimental investigation on the isolated H-SLEs deployable mechanism under compression axial load was presented. A total of twelve specimens were fabricated in two series with six specimens each series were tested on their strength and stability at deployed configuration. The test specimens in series 1 mm thick C75 section were namely S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6 while series 0.75 mm thick C 75 section were namely S7, S8, S9, S10, S11 and S12. The test specimens consist of C 75 and C 100 section which connected with M6, M8 and M10 bolt in grade 8.8. The compression axial load was applied at the center of 3 mm thick loading platform. The experimental results obtained indicated that four types of failure modes observed, i.e. bolt bending failure, section bearing failure, member buckling failure and instability due to horizontal displacement at mid-height of H-SLEs deployable mechanism (Bolted joint area). Among these failure modes, bolt bending failure was dominated the overall structure stability and impacts others failure modes indirectly while section thickness has impacted the buckling and bearing failure. The ultimate load capacity over BS EN 1993 design bearing resistance ratio obtained for M10 bolt was satisfactory. Besides, twisted effect observed during load applied also contributed to the failure modes identified. Thus, the H-SLEs deployable mechanism with stiffener with M10 bolt connection is necessary for future research in the application of spatial deployable structure purposes.

Keywords: Half Scissor-Like Elements (H-SLEs); deployable mechanism; stability; bolt bending failure; bearing capacity; ultimate load

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-10
11. Hydrodynamic Modelling: Estuary Dynamic Implication to Morphological Changes

Shahirah Hayati Mohd Salleh, Wan Hanna Melini Wan Mohtar*, Khairul Nizam Abdul Maulud & Ibrahiem Al-Ani

Estuaries are transition zones between the sea and inland rivers, where oceanic tidal waves and fluvial flows control hydrodynamic processes. However, these natural changes and implications are not thoroughly understood, particularly in tropical estuaries. The interactions between tidal and riverine flows in the Kuala Pahang Estuary were examined using numerical modelling techniques applying TELEMAC2D. Our results model demonstrate that prolonged heavy rainfall significantly impacted water levels in the estuary system during the neap tide cycle. Moreover, the results show that the tidal range and current speed significantly influenced estuary morphological changes. The flood-ebb current can affect sediment transport near the river bank, leading to erosion. Meanwhile, the ebb-flood current significantly affected the bed sediment and suspension in the estuary mouth area while deposition happens during the slack water, either flood or ebb. Our results have a major impact on estuary morphology and sediment transport in the estuary water column, which will lead to a reduction in estuary water quality and the local economy, particularly fisheries.

Keywords: Estuary; Hydrodynamic; Heavy rain; TELEMAC2D; Neap tide; Morphology

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-11
12. Assessment of Indoor Thermal Condition on Traditional Vernacular Masjid: A Case Study on Masjid Kampung Laut, Malaysia

Nur Athirah binti Khalit*, Zuraini binti Denan, Aliyah Nur Zafirah binti Sanusi & Norwina binti Mohd Nawawi

Traditional vernacular architectures in Malaysia include public buildings such as a masjid were designed with the tropical climate in mind and have proven to be an excellent example of providing indoor thermal comfort to the occupants. It is a naturally ventilated building being greatly influenced by the building designs. In traditional vernacular architecture, the roof is the main building enclosure that contributes to the total heat gain. Hence, the research aims to assess the indoor thermal condition of Masjid Kampung Laut, Kelantan, the first traditional vernacular masjid in Malaysia. Data were collected using the method of field measurement to evaluate the indoor comfort level of the masjid, in terms of indoor air temperature, air velocity, and relative humidity. The results demonstrate that the average indoor air temperature is acceptable and Masjid Kampung Laut responded favorably to the local climate. However, it is believed that with an increase of 0.4m/s to 1.2m/s of air movement, will further enhance indoor thermal comfort. Therefore, the findings can guide further thermal comfort prediction studies for other naturally ventilated buildings. Several other potential passive design strategies for roof design are proposed in this study to achieve acceptable indoor thermal comfort conditions for the masjid in Malaysia.

Keywords: traditional vernacular masjid, field measurement, indoor thermal comfort

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-12
13. Earthwork Volumetric Estimation Via Unmanned Aerial System Application: Perception From Penang Contractors

Norsyakilah Romeli*, Aimee Atikah Zakaria, Faridah Muhamad Halil, Muhammad Aizat Afiq Abd Ghapar & Nurfadzillah Ishak

Despite the geospatial potential of Unmanned Aerial System, its application in the construction industry is still at an early stage and limited exposure on the application. A survey was conducted to identify the factor of utilization level, their difficulties, as well as the perception associated with this technology. Responses from the Penang Contractors showed that the most common utilization factor is cost expectancy and limited payload and battery life, sensitivity to weather, as well as large volume of the generated data and data loss, as difficulties to utilizing UASs in earthwork volumetric estimation during preliminary stage, deployment stage and post-deployment stage respectively. This study also used a qualitative technique, in which data were gathered via interviews with a contractor. Participant consider all variables affecting the perception except project requirements. By understanding UAS utilization in construction, this study offers a pathway for researchers and professionals to investigate utilization factors, difficulties, and perceptions that may have the most impact on Malaysia’s construction industry. These barriers to UAS utilization in Malaysia’s construction industry will not preclude its use. However, government assistance is critical in encouraging the use of UAS and increasing public awareness in the construction industry.

Keywords: Unmanned aerial system; earthwork volumetric estimation; perception of contractors

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-13
14. Effect of Blasting Waste as An Additive in Bitumen Mixtures

Saiful Hazman Bin Mokhtar, Ernie Binti Kulian @ Abd Karim & Nur Hanani Binti Daud

The use of blasting waste in road pavement mixes is one of the new alternatives in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to look at the potential of blasting waste as an additive in bitumen mixtures in road construction. Several percentages of blasting waste additive were studied, namely 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 17%. The parameter values of each of these mixtures were obtained through the Marshall test. A total of five sets of specimens were prepared for the Marshall test, with each set containing three samples. From the test result, all the percentages of blasting waste as an additive in the bitumen mixture passed the Public Works Department (Jabatan Kerja Raya or JKR) specifications. It was also concluded that 10% of blasting waste as an additive is the optimum value, with a stability value of 82.5kN as compared to the stability value of the control sample at 37.7kN. The flow and Marshall Quotient values for the 10% sample were 4mm and 20kN/mm, respectively. All values obtained from this study were in accordance with JKR specifications, indicating that blasting waste has great potential in improving the specification values of bitumen mixtures.

Keywords: Bitumen mixtures; blasting waste; additive

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-14
15. Microstructural and Thermal Analysis of Warm-Modified Bitumen with Palm Oil Boiler Ash

Norliza Mohd Akhir, Shuhaida Harun, Naeem Aziz Memon, Abdalrhman Milad, Muhammad Imran Khan, Muhamad Nazri Borhan & Nur Izzi Md Yusoff*

This paper presents the results of an investigation to evaluate the effect of Palm Oil Boiler Ash (POBA) and a chemical warm mix additive, Rediset on the physicochemical and thermal properties of bituminous binders. Modified binder preparation was carried out by varying the composition of POBA (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9%) and Rediset with 2% by total weight of the binder, into a 60/70 penetration grade of bitumen through a wet mixing method. The physicochemical properties of the POBA/Rediset modified binders were examined using Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR), while the thermal analysis was conducted using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) techniques. Based on FTIR analysis, POBA/Rediset modified binders have almost similar functional groups as for the control sample (0%) which indicate the compatibility of POBA in the bituminous binder. Meanwhile, the thermos-grams shows an insignificant effect of POBA on the thermal stability of the binder. Overall, the inclusion of POBA as bitumen modifier in warm mix asphalt (WMA) for pavement construction is a promising and potential alternative in lowering the asphalt production temperature without compromising the binder properties.

Keywords: Bitumen; Palm oil boiler ash; Microstructural characterization; Thermal properties; Rediset.

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-15
16. Initial Design of Automated Latex Cup Robot Collector on Rough Terrain

Xi Bo Khor, Chin Jin Ong, Chong Hooi Lim & Yee Chyan Tan*

Despite the growing demand in rubber products, the world rubber production has declined in recent years. In this paper, a prototype of an automated latex cups collecting robot is constructed to assist the workers in the latex collection process. This robot is constructed on a mobile platform with a rear-wheel drive, double wishbone suspension, Ackermann’s steer transmission, motor-driven Four Degree of Freedom (DoF) manipulator arm and a latex storage tank. Ultrasonic sensors and camera are employed to locate the position of rubber trees and latex cups. The developed prototype robot has undergone the functional test to verify the control system, in which the robot can collecting the latex cup located at the height of 105 cm and 160 cm. In the mobility test, the robot can overcome obstacles of 15 mm height. While in the static test, the platform and the robotic arm can withstand the stress in the range of 107 N/m2. In the balance test, the topple angle is more than 40°, guaranteeing the stability of the robot platform. Those results showed that the prototype design is feasible to perform basic tasks automatically in the unstructured terrain of rubber plantation.

Keywords: Latex cups collector robot; 4 Degree of freedom robotic arm; automated robot; rear wheels drive robot; control system

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-16
17. Green Architecture Approach Toward Sustainable Mosques in Malaysia

Muhammad Azzam Ismail & Fahanim Abdul Rashid

Rising thermal comfort expectations during worship at mosques in Malaysia have led to increasingly high carbon emissions due to electricity consumption for cooling. An increasing number of existing mosques in urban and affluent areas are retrofitted with extensive air-conditioning systems. In addition, new mosques are designed with active rather than passive cooling techniques. At the same time, although widely promoted in Islam, sustainable ways of living, including water and resource conservation, equitable physical and knowledge access, and community bonding, are not being actively promoted and practiced by the mosques communities. Therefore, this paper presents a descriptive study of the Green Building Index certified Raja Fi Sabilillah Mosque in Cyberjaya, Malaysia. This study aims to uncover practical green and sustainable architecture elements that could be implemented at other mosques. This study observed a high amount of renewable energy generated at this large mosque. Further, energy is conserved by using passive cooling, natural daylighting, and LED indoor lighting. Other installed features are water-saving taps, wheelchair access, and a disabled ablution booth. Overall, this case study points toward a sustainable mosque through a green architecture approach that could be widely implemented for the betterment of the Ummah.

Keywords: Green architecture; sustainable mosques; passive cooling; renewable energy

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-17
18. The Acceptance Level of New Safety Helmet Design among Palm Oil Plantation Harvesters in Johor, Malaysia

Siti Najihah Abdul Salam, Dayana Hazwani Mohd Suadi Nata* & Shamsul Bahri Md Tamrin

Agriculture has the highest number of occupational accident cases reported to the Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Malaysia in 2022. The most serious concern is a head injury, which can lead to serious injury or death. Because of the fundamental issue of discomfort, the current level of safety helmet usage is extremely low. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of acceptance of a new safety helmet design. This single group pre and post-test study were conducted on 124 harvesters in three Johor palm oil plantations by using a modified structured questionnaire. A training session on proper helmet use was conducted via video presentation. For three days, harvesters wore the new safety helmet design. Field observation was conducted on the practice item for the post-test. Descriptive analysis shows harvesters have a high score for knowledge, attitude, and practice. There is no significant difference (p>0.05) in practice before and after the implementation of training. There is a significant increase (p<0.001) in the acceptance level of the parameter (comfort, safety, ventilation, peak, fit, design, and heat) of the new safety helmet design on day 1, day 3 and day 6 among palm oil plantation harvesters. Overall, the harvesters have high knowledge, attitude and practice level and the new safety helmet design is well accepted by the harvesters. Training session implemented is helpful, however, the module needs to be improvised to increase the practice level.

Keywords: Safety helmet; comfort; harvester

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-18
19. Optimization of the California Bearing Ratio of Lateritic Soil Stabilized with Rice Husk Ash using Scheffe’s Method

Ike Ubadinanwa Elvis* & Ike Charles Chinwuba

In a bid to minimize the adverse effects of agricultural waste materials in the environment and also encourage for its optimal usage, this study aims at developing model constants for optimizing the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Lateritic Soils stabilized with Rice Husk Ash (RHA) using Scheffe’s method. The study practically involved sampling of the materials, laboratory testing and model formulation. The natural soil was subjected to standardized laboratory testing to determine its index and Engineering properties. The scheffe’s method provided mix ratios for the three mix components (lateritic soil, RHA and water) involved in the mix design. The method also employs the use of second-degree polynomials to generate the model constants. The CBR of the soil was the primary property of the soil considered in the study therefore, a CBR test was conducted on the natural soil and modified soil. The optimization technique carried out gave an optimal mix observed to be of mix ratio 1: 1.70: 0.25 for lateritic soil, RHA and water with a CBR value of 30%. The model formulated was further subjected to validation using the F-test and T-test statistical method and it was found adequate at a confidence level of 95%. Hence, the null hypothesis (H0 ) was adopted. The formulated model being adequate can be used exclusively to predict the CBR of Lateritic soil Stabilized with Rice Husk Ash within the same locality.

Keywords: Optimization; California Bearing Ratio; Stabilization; Lateritic Soil; Scheffe’s Method

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-19
20. The Design of a New 3D Print-in-place Soft Four-Legged Robots with Artificial Intelligence

Yong Saan Cern* & Yeoh Sheng Ze

Soft and flexible robots are designed to change their flexibility over a wide range to perform tasks adequately in real-world applications. Current soft robots require cast moulding, high assembly effort and large actuators. Soft origami structures exhibit high levels of compliance. In this paper, we designed a new 3D print-in-place soft four-legged robot (3DSOLR). Our soft legged robot is an endurance application adapted from the soft origami zigzag gripper. This novel and innovative design are inspired by the rigid joint Theo Jansen legged robot with highly adaptive 3D print-in-place soft origami legs capable of fluid motion and even surviving drop tests. The robot mechanism consists of four soft origami flexible legs driven by two DC motors. The 3DSOLR is lightweight and semi-autonomous using two Hall effect sensors and a wireless Bluetooth module. Being 3D print-in-place using Thermoplastic polyurethane also increases its durability while having flexibility, simplicity and safety. The robot also has a gripper inspired by the mandible of male European stag beetle (Lucanus cervus). These features make this robot suitable to be used in social robotics and rescue robotics applications. The transmitter program is implemented in Bluetooth serial communication using MIT App Inventor 2 smartphone apps and a microcontroller Arduino ATMEL is used as the main controller and code in Arduino IDE. It has artificial intelligence (AI) capability with ESP32 CAM onboard which has an object classification accuracy of 95.5% using custom Edge Impulse neural network MobileNetV1 96 x 96. This AI capability enhanced the robot’s capability in object classification for grasping.

Keywords: Four-legged robot; 3D Print-in-place; Flexible actuation; Theo Jansen

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-20
21. Improvement of Solar Cell Efficiency and Electrical Energy of a Photovoltaic-Thermal System by Using Nanofluid

Marhama Jelita & Habibis Saleh*

This communication presents the finite element method (FEM) analysis of the conjugate heat transfer across the PV/T panel. The PV/T system has several layers i.e., PV cell layer, thermal paste layer, reservoir wall and reservoir flow channel filled with nanofluid. The heat transfer equations for all layers have been constructed according to the conjugate heat transfer equation. The continuity, momentum and energy equations are solved numerically by using the FEM technique. The effects of various dimensionless parameters are discussed by plotting velocity, temperature, electrical output and thermal efficiencies. The result indicates that the average cell temperature keeps decreased by increasing nanoparticle concentration. The narrower flow channel has greater power output at the relatively low concentration while the wider flow channel has greater power output at the relatively high concentration. Thermal performance increases by 11% for every 10% increasing in nanoparticle volume fraction.

Keywords: Conjugate heat transfer; nanofluid; FEM; photovoltaic; thermal system

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-21
22. Using Cement as Filler to Enhance Asphalt Mixes Performance in Hot Climate Regions

Aioub Guha* & Gabriel Assaf

This paper investigates the addition of different percentages of ordinary Portland cement as a filler in conventional asphalt concrete for a range of heavy traffic. Road pavement agencies in hot areas face the daunting challenge of preserving their pavements in a fair to good condition to increase their lifespan. This challenge is due to the high occurrence of permanent pavement deformation via rutting, which is one of the major distress factors influencing pavements. This is a particularly serious issue in hot and arid countries which are closely associated with various aggravating factors. These aggravating factors include the choice of bitumen binder viscosity, the type of bitumen, the available low-quality materials, and the high environmental temperatures. Ultimately, poor performance will show within the first few years of service as permanent deformations such as rutting, shoving, and depressions. The examined properties include the resilient modulus and the resistance to rutting. Findings indicate that the resistance to rutting and the rigidity of the asphalt concrete are both substantially increased as the cement content is increased. Moreover, to meet the heavy traffic spectrum requirements, increasing the embedded cement content in the asphalt concrete improves pavement structural capacity. Finally, based on the rigidity expected for different cement levels, design curves are provided for pavement design in hot climates using low quality aggregate materials.

Keywords: Portland cement; filler; Hot Mix Asphalt; rutting; B60/70

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-22
23. Production Enhancement through Integration of Lean, Life Cycle Assessment & Industry 4.0

Tehrim Ijaz, Muhammad Ismail, Syed Mustafa Haider, Muhammad Zeeshan Rafique* & Syeda Hadika Jamshaid

Advancement in the manufacturing sector has attained a dominate interest from the researchers as well as the industrialists, for attaining the more products efficiencies. The concept of Lean Manufacturing set the cornerstone for excellence in manufacturing sector by improving the production times and reducing the non-value-added processes. In 2011, the concept of Industry 4.0 pivoted the concept of automation in factories to complement the production improvement processes. The under developing countries such as Pakistan, the manufacturing sector is run with the conventional manufacturing practices, which yields the products of lower quality and much time is being wasted resulting in overall poor efficiency. Moreover, those industries which want to improve their processes are not very much certain, about the methodologies they shall implement. In this research study, the authors have used the mathematical modelling approach of Analytical Hierarchy Processes (AHP) to recognise the pertinent Industry 4.0 technologies and lean perceptions – this technique empowers opportunity of organizing and analysing the intricate decisions for a strong understanding. By using Value Stream Mapping and Automation in a simulation-based case study, improvements of 44.70% in lead time, 17% in value added time and 45.25% in non-value-added time were witnessed. This research explores the avenue of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM), based decision making in Industry 4.0 related environments. It will provide clarity to academicians regarding the integration of lean and Industry 4.0 through optimized and logical selection of relevant approaches, in addition to aiding practitioners in intelligent decision making.

Keywords: Lean Manufacturing, Industry 4.0, Production Improvement, AHP method, Case Study.

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-23
24. Faktor Analisis Penilaian Polisi Kenderaan Akhir Hayat
Factor Analysis of End-of-Life Vehicle Policy Evaluation

Nur Nabila Natasyahani Hairul*, Muhamad Razuhanafi Mat Yazid*, Rozmi Ismail, Rosniza Aznie Che Rose, Zurinah Tahir, Nur Atiqah Suparjo Noordin & Charli Sitinjak
Abstrak Bahasa Melayu

Pengeluar kenderaan biasanya berhasrat agar kenderaan mereka mampu bertahan selama 10 tahun, oleh itu kenderaan yang melebihi jangka masa ini diklasifkasikan sebagai Kenderaan Akhir Hayat (ELV). Penggunaan ELV secara meluas boleh mengakibatkan kepada pencemaran alam sekitar. Satu rangka kerja bagi pengurusan ELV harus direka bentuk untuk mengatasi masalah ini. Matlamat penyelidikan ini adalah untuk mempelajari tentang perundangan berkaitan ELV serta pelaksanaannya di negara luar, serta untuk mengukur penilaian awam terhadap pelaksanaan kitar semula ELV di Malaysia. Kajian ini merangkumi kajian literatur yang telah diguna pakai di negara luar, serta tinjaun 200 responden. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif dengan menggunakan kebolehpercayaan Alpha Cronbach dan analisis penerokaan faktor (EFA) menggunakan perincian SPSS. Hasil analisis mendapati nilai Alpha Cronbach yang diperoleh adalah 0.925 iaitu melebihi 0.70. Keputusan daripada analisis faktor penerokaan menunjukkan lapan faktor dengan nilai Eigen melebihi 1.0, Nilai KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) adalah 0.792 dan 0.881 melebihi 0.50 dan ujian Bartlett menunjukkan nilai signifikan iaitu p < 0.05, menunjukkan item-item dalam bahagian pengetahuan pengurusan sisa pepejal dan ELV, kesediaan masyarakat dan sikap masyarakat adalah mencukupi untuk dilaksanakan faktor analisis.

Keywords: ELV; Kitar Semula; Kenderaan; Polisi ELV

Abstract in English

Vehicle manufacturers usually want their vehicles to last for 10 years, so vehicles that exceed this period are classified as End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV). Widespread use of ELVs can lead to environmental pollution. A framework for ELV management should be designed to address this problem. The aim of this research is to learn about ELV -related legislation and its implementation in foreign countries, as well as to measure public evaluation of the implementation of ELV recycling in Malaysia. The study includes a review of the literature that has been adopted in foreign countries, as well as a survey of 200 respondents. Data were analyzed descriptively using Cronbach’s Alpha reliability and factor exploratory analysis (EFA) using SPSS details. The results of the analysis found that the Cronbach’s Alpha value obtained was 0.925, which is more than 0.70. Results from the exploratory factor analysis showed eight factors with Eigen values exceeding 1.0, KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) values were 0.792 and 0.881 exceeding 0.50 and Bartlett test showed significant values of p < 0.05, indicating items in the solid waste management knowledge section and ELV, community readiness and community attitudes were sufficient to implement the analytical factors.

Keywords: ELV; Recycling; Vehicles; ELV policies

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-24
25. Implementation of A.I. Vehicle Detection for Traffic Analysis Using In-situ Surveillance Infrastructure

Saadullah Hyder*, Marjan Gul, Sadiq Hussain, Syed Ilyas Ahmed, Aamir Nazeer & Faheem Ahmed

Traffic flow parameters are required for optimizing traffic operations, design of pavements, and future planning of traffic networks. Unfortunately, due to the unique characteristics and variety of vehicles in the sub-continent i.e., size and design, the accuracy of results for a vision-based system is challenged, since most thorough datasets are based on European and American traffic. This paper proposes a solution by developing a detection model ground-up using a dataset created from the local traffic surveillance footage, and creating a python pipeline for vehicle speed detection and classification. The vehicle classification model is developed using the state-of-the-art YOLO object detector which significantly reduces the computation time required to maintain the efficiency of the proposed solution. Furthermore, a computer-vision script is developed to track the movement of vehicles in the footage and record the speeds in a spreadsheet. The technique used eliminates the video calibration, including distance and angle, required for detecting accurate speeds. Finally, the realtime traffic data is analyzed to derive the fundamental traffic flow parameters and discuss the relation between flow and density. To ascertain the validity of this survey technique, the results are compared to the following renowned traffic flow models: The Modified Greenberg model, Eddie’s model, and The Two-regime model. The results are found to closely follow the models in all three cases.

Keywords: Traffic analysis; vehicle classification; vehicle detection; YOLO-v3

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-35(3)-25