Solar Energy Research Institute

Institut Penyelidikan Tenaga Suria | Solar Energy Research Institute

Advanced Silicon Solar Cell Fabrication Laboratory

Advance Silicon Solar Cell Fabrication Laboratory highlights research on developing advanced technology for silicon solar cells. There have been major research done here including bifacial, Interdigitated Back Contact (IBC) solar cells with outstanding research findings. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Adib Ibrahim and Dr. Suhaila Sepeai are among the principal researcher in this laboratory.
Most of the research in this laboratory focused on the silicon solar cell process from wafer to panel.
The process includes cleaning, texturing, n-type diffusion, passivation, anti-reflective coating (ARC), metallization, and firing.
The laboratory also provides facilities for sample characterization such as Atomic Force Microscopy, Light-induced current–voltage (LIV), 4 Point Probe, and Scanning Kelvin Probe.

High Precision 4 Point Probe

The tester is suitable for the use in the testing of the sheet resistance and resistivity of ITO coated glass, FTO coated glass, AZO coated glass, and other conductive thin film that with uniform and rigid structure.

Technical Specifications of the Tester

1)           Testing resistance range:1O µO – 2.00 kO (Five testing resistance range with different testing current)

2)            With the function of sorting,is suitable for the use in commercial manufacture.

3)            The type ofFour-Point Probe: linear four probe.

4)            The Material of the Four-Point Probe: tungsten carbide .

5)            The distance between two neighboring probes :1mm

6)            The deviation of the distance between two neighboring probes: <2 %

7)            The resultant force of the Four-Point Probe: 4•1N

8)            The diameter of the Indentation of the Four-Point Probe: 200-400 µm

9)            The mechanical shift rate of the Four-Point Probe: <0.3 %

10)         The max space between the guide hole and the Four-Point Probe: 0.006mm

11)         The insulation resistance of the Four-Point Probe at 500V :>1000 mo

12)         The probes distance correction factor Fsp: Please find the value of Fsp from the testing result of the Four-Point Probe in the Table 4 in the         Operation Manual.

Scanning  Kelvin Probe

1.      Tip material / diameter  : Standard 2 mm gold tip (0.05 mm available on request)

2.      Work function resolution : 1 – 3 meV

3.      Sample scan size : 50 x 50 mm

4.      3D sample area : Square

5.      Height control (auto) : 25mm

6.      Visualisation : 3D map of surface potential

7.      Optical system : Colour camera with zoom lens and monitor

8.      Oscilloscope : Digital TFT oscilloscope for real time signal

9.      Test sample : Gold and aluminium test sample

10.   Faraday enclosure base  : 450 x 450 mm

11.   Control supplied : PC control with dedicated software for full control of all parameters

Detection system : Off-null with parasitic capacity rejection

Light -Induced-Current-Voltage

Further applications are the determination of Measurements can be made on a wide range of solar cell materials, such as: Monocrystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon

The main application of our solar simulator systems is the evaluation of power parameters of solar cells. For this type of measurements, the solar simulator is integrated into an IV measuring station. For setting the correct irradiance value we offer calibrated reference cells.



The spectroscopic ellipsometers is engineered to meet the diverse demands of thin film characterization. An advanced optical design, wide spectral range, and fast data acquisition combine in an extremely powerful and versatile tool. The instrument delivers both speed, accuracy and patented RCE technology combines Rotating Compensator Ellipsometry with high-speed CCD detection to collect the entire spectrum (hundreds of wavelengths) in a fraction of a second with a wide array of configurations.


Optical Profilometer


The optical profiler provides 3D metrology and imaging capability, combined with an integrated isolation table and configuration flexibility to handle larger samples. The 3D optical metrology system simultaneously collects high-resolution 3D data and a True Color infinite focus image. The non-contact profiler supports both R&D and production environments with Multi-Mode optics, easy-to-use software, and a low cost of ownership